Q and A's
1. How are fuel consumption ratings determined?
The fuel consumption ratings on the EnerGuide for vehicles labels, in the Fuel Consumption Guide, and on the Office of Energy Efficiency's web site were submitted by vehicle manufacturers who have certified that the tests and calculations were carried out according to approved Transport Canada methods. Transport Canada is responsible for ensuring the accuracy of the data.
New vehicles are “run in” for about 6000 km before testing. Vehicles are mounted on a programmable two-wheel laboratory chassis dynamometer and, using two-wheel drive (the 4WD or AWD is physically disconnected), are run through simulated city and highway driving cycles. This carefully controlled method of testing, including the use of standardized fuels, laboratories and testing equipment is used instead of on-road driving to ensure that all vehicles are tested under identical conditions.
Fuel consumption ratings are generated based on test cycles and correction factors that take into account the aerodynamic efficiency, weight, rolling resistance, drive mode of different vehicles and average real-world driving conditions in Canada. Other adjustments are made to reflect the average fuel consumption of vehicle configurations, options and sales mixes sold in Canada.
All vehicles, including four-wheel (4×4) and all-wheel drive (AWD), are tested in two-wheel drive (2WD) mode.
Simulated city course
City fuel consumption ratings are based on a 23-minute simulated drive of 12 km, with 18 complete stops. The average speed of the test is 32 km/h.
Simulated highway course
Highway fuel consumption ratings are based on a 13-minute simulated highway course of 16 km with no stops. The top speed during the test is 97 km/h, and the average speed of the test is 77 km/h, reflecting an urban-highway driving environment.
For additional information about vehicle testing, visit Transport Canada's website at http://www.tc.gc.ca/road/
2. Why is the actual fuel consumption of my vehicle greater than its EnerGuide fuel consumption rating?
The published ratings are for typically equipped vehicles and are adjusted to reflect average real-world driving conditions in Canada. The actual fuel consumption of your vehicle will vary from its EnerGuide fuel consumption rating, depending on how aggressively and how fast you drive, and factors such as outside temperature, weather, traffic, and road conditions. The operating condition of your vehicle, as well as the types of power-driven accessories (e.g., air conditioning) and external accessories (e.g., roof racks) installed on your vehicle with also affect your fuel use.
The published fuel consumption ratings are achievable if you drive your vehicle with fuel efficiency in mind and keep it in top operating condition. For more information on vehicle fuel consumption and related topics, including tips on how to get the most fuel efficiency out of your new vehicle, visit vehicles.gc.ca
3. What do I do if I am unsatisfied with my vehicles fuel consumption?
If you are unhappy with your vehicle's fuel consumption, track your vehicles fuel consumption in a log book to substantiate a case. Notify the manufacturer in writing concerning your fuel consumption complaint in order to allow the manufacturer to resolve the problem and check the vehicle for computer and sensor error codes.
If you are unable to resolve your concerns with the manufacturer, there are other options open to you:
Arbitration: The Canadian Motor Vehicle Arbitration Plan (CAMVAP) arbitration process typically takes 60 to 70 days. Within 10 days after a consumer calls CAMVAP, a claim form is sent. Consumers have 60 days to return the claim form. If the vehicle qualifies, the complaint is credible, and the consumer is willing to follow the process, CAMVAP will arbitrate. Qualified vehicles include all new vehicle purchases, or those under manufacturer warranty (2-5 years or 45 to 60 000 km). A consumer does not need to wait to have driven 6000 km in the vehicle to go through the arbitration process, although the manufacturer or dealer typically won't do any repairs before that point. You are eligible for Arbitration only if your dispute involves fuel efficiency issues where one or more defective components of your vehicle are alleged to be the cause of the fuel efficiency problem.
A hearing is scheduled within 50 days from the time CAMVAP receives claim. At the hearing, only an arbitrator, the consumer, and the manufacturer representative are present, which makes it less arduous than a court hearing. A decision is taken between 2 and 4 weeks after a hearing. For more information visit http://www.camvap.ca or call 1-800-207-0685.
Competition Bureau: The Competition Bureau receives very few complaints related to fuel consumption.
Because some knowledge of mechanics is needed to properly investigate fuel consumption complaints, the Competition Bureau refers these complaints to CAMVAP. However, the Competition Bureau likes to receive complaints because it allows them to evaluate the level of dissatisfaction about fuel consumption. In the event that they receive a high volume of complaints, they will take action. Although the Competition Bureau does not deal with fuel consumption, it has investigated and prosecuted producers of fuel-saving devices.
Fuel consumption complaints can be registered with Competition Bureau at 1-800-348-5358 or on the internet at http://cb-bc.gc.ca.
4. Why is the fuel consumption of any given vehicle in Canada lower than that of the same vehicle in the U.S.?
The fuel consumption ratings in Canada are different from those in the U.S. for several reasons. First, in some cases, different configurations of the same vehicle models, with different fuel consumption ratings, are sold in the two countries. Second, the Canadian fuel consumption adjustment factors, used to reflect average, real-world driving conditions, are not exactly the same as those used in the U.S. Third, beginning with 2008 models, the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) has revised testing procedures. Three new procedures were added to the existing City and Highway scenarios. High speed/rapid acceleration driving, use of air conditioning, and cold temperature operation were added in an effort to replicate real world conditions. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the U.S. fuel economy figures are reported in U.S. miles per gallon, whereas fuel economy in Canada is reported in Imperial miles per gallon. The imperial gallon is 20% more voluminous than the U.S. gallon.
1 U.S. gallon × 1.2 = 1 imperial gallon
Imperial gallon = 4.456 litres
U.S. Gallon = 3.785 litres
5. Where can I find the fuel consumption rating of trucks not listed in the fuel consumption guide or NRCan website?
Fuel consumption data are currently not available for vehicles with a gross vehicle weight (GVWR) rating exceeding the 3855 kg (8500 lbs) limit. As the ¾-ton (and 1-ton and heavier) trucks are heavier than this requirement, their fuel consumption ratings do not appear in the Fuel Consumption Guide or on the EnerGuide label affixed to all new vehicles sold in Canada.
Fuel consumption data are not available for medium- or heavy-duty vehicles. Under agreements with vehicle manufacturers, fuel consumption data are required to be submitted for new light-duty vehicles sold in Canada with a GVWR of 3855 kg or less. The GVWR is the maximum design loaded weight of a vehicle including payload, and it differs from the curb weight, which is the weight of a vehicle when ready to use, excluding the driver and payload.
Manufacturers are the most likely source of fuel consumption values, feel free to contact the vehicle's manufacturer about the fuel consumption of the medium- or heavy-duty vehicle.
6. Does the federal government provide incentives for fuel efficient vehicles or levies for inefficient vehicles?
For information on rebates, please visit Transport Canada at: http://www.tc.gc.ca
For information on levies please visit, Canada Revenue Agency at: http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca
7. How do I convert L/100 KM to MPG?
To convert mpg U.S. into mi./gal. (Imperial), multiply mpg (U.S.) by 1.2.
To convert miles per gallon (U.S.) into litres per 100 kilometres (L/100 Km), divide 235.21 by miles per gallon (U.S.).
To convert miles per gallon (Imperial) into litres per 100 kilometres (L/100 Km), divide 282.48 by miles per gallon (Imperial).
To convert litres per 100 kilometres (L/100 Km) into miles per gallon (Imperial), divide 282.48 by L/100 Km.
One mile is equivalent to 1.6093 kilometres.
One gallon (U.S.) is equivalent to 3.7854 litres.
One gallon (Imperial) is equivalent to 4.5461 litres.
8. How can one litre of gasoline, weighing less than 1 kg, produce 2.4 kg of CO2?
The reason is as follows:
- Gasoline is very rich in carbon.
- The combustion process requires a lot of oxygen, and this oxygen has considerable mass.
- During the combustion process, the carbon content of the fuel combines with oxygen from the air to form carbon dioxide. In other words, a litre of gasoline containing approximately 0.64 kg of carbon combines with nearly three times that amount of oxygen, thus producing approximately 2.4 kg of carbon dioxide (or CO2).
9. Why doesn't the government provide fuel consumption information for motorcycles and scooters?
The governments' current focus is to promote fuel efficient vehicles that meet the everyday needs of Canadians.