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Making Progress on GHG Reductions in the Automotive Sector

FIRST INTERIM GOAL REPORT – 2007

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING RESPECTING AUTOMOBILE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

PREPARED BY THE JOINT GOVERNMENT-INDUSTRY GHG MOU COMMITTEE

Table of Contents

1. Introduction
2. First Interim Goal and the Industry's Performance
3. Government-Industry GHG MOU Committee Activities
3.1 Data Aspects and the Analytical Framework
3.2 Analytical Framework Verification
3.3 Outreach Activities
4. Advanced Technology Introductions
Appendix A – GHG Memorandum of Understanding
Appendix B – Joint Government-Industry GHG MOU Committee – Terms of Reference
Appendix C – Advanced Technology Introductions by the Automotive Industry

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1. Introduction

On April 5, 2005, the Government of Canada and the automotive industry reached a landmark voluntary agreement to reduce annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canada’s vehicle fleet by 5.3 megatonnes (Mt) in 2010.

This agreement represents a strong commitment on the part of the automotive industry to work with the Government of Canada and all Canadians in the pursuit of economic and environmental prosperity and to demonstrate action towards addressing GHG emissions.

The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) sets out a comprehensive approach to reduce GHG emissions. It is founded on a framework of key principles that are contained in the preamble of the MOU (see Appendix A). Several of the key principles are outlined below:

  • It is an agreement by both government and the Canadian automotive industry that action will be taken to reduce the growth of GHG emissions in Canada.

  • It builds on existing achievements to reduce GHG emissions and improve fuel efficiency through improvements in vehicle technology and in the operation and maintenance of vehicles in Canada.

  • It acknowledges that the Canadian automotive industry has made significant progress in reducing GHG emissions and improving fuel efficiency since 1990.

  • It recognizes the concomitant goals of improving vehicle safety, addressing vehicle smog-causing emissions and maintaining consumer choice.

  • It acknowledges that the Canadian automotive industry has shown good faith in meeting its commitments in other Memoranda of Understanding and is currently party to numerous successful active agreements.

  • It acknowledges that this MOU is unique because it targets GHG emission reductions that will be achieved by this sector through the products that are sold and therefore are also dependent on consumer behaviour and the availability of appropriate fuels.

  • It agrees on the importance of the parties’ (government and industry) mutual goals to attract new investment in Canada, stimulate economic growth and to ensure the continued competitiveness of the Canadian automotive industry as progress is made to reduce GHG emissions. It also recognizes the integrated nature of the North American auto market and the engineering and production lead times for introducing new technologies to the market.

The MOU has several key components that are important to highlight. It indicates that

  • The MOU voluntarily commits the Canadian automotive industry to achieve a 5.3-Mt reduction in GHG emissions from passenger cars and light-duty trucks in 2010, relative to the reference case.

  • It is comprehensive in that it includes all the GHGs under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change that apply to the use of motor vehicles. These include carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and other Kyoto gases that are equated to a CO2 equivalent value (CO2e) in megatonnes (Mt).

  • It clearly outlines interim GHG emission reduction goals that the Canadian automotive industry has committed to meet. The interim reduction goals are 2.4 Mt in 2007, 3.0 Mt in 2008 and 3.9 Mt in 2009.

  • It indicates that the Canadian automotive industry’s efforts will be focused on the introduction into the Canadian market place of advanced emission technologies, advanced diesel technology, alternative fuel vehicles, hybrids, high-efficiency technologies and other GHG-reducing technologies to accomplish the 5.3-Mt reduction. (Examples of GHG-reducing technologies are listed in Annex 3 of the MOU).

  • It encourages the appropriate use of a variety of new fuels such as ethanol, clean diesel and biodiesel by working with the government and fuel providers in this regard to support new vehicle technologies.

  • It indicates that the Canadian automotive industry will support automotive research and development in Canada in the areas of lightweight materials, alternative fuels, hydrogen fuel cells and infrastructure, and other advances.

This is the First Interim Goal Report as specified under the MOU. It provides information on the activities and progress under the MOU and reports the automotive industry’s performance against the first interim GHG reduction goal of 2.4 Mt in 2007.

Tracking and reporting on progress under the MOU has been undertaken by a Joint government-industry committee (the “Committee”) as specified in the MOU. It comprises equal numbers of government and industry representatives, eight in total. The Committee serves as the accountability mechanism under the MOU for the Parties (government and industry), and its work is primarily technical in nature. The Committee has clear Terms of Reference (See Appendix B).

The Committee has published three progress updates in advance of this First Interim Goal Report. These updates were not required in the MOU but they reflect the Committee’s commitment to share information on progress under the MOU.

The First Progress Update of June 2006 provided details on the MOU, its approach and benefits, and the 5.3-Mt reduction goal, and it outlined the mandate and terms of reference for the Committee. The Second Progress Update of April 2007 provided information on the Committee activities, including information on the data aspects and the analytical framework, or tracking model, to measure progress on the MOU, and an update on the operational plan and key deliverables and the latest advanced vehicle technology introductions. The Third Progress Update of October 2007 again outlined further information on the Committee activities pertaining to the analytical framework and the latest vehicle technology introductions. The first, second and third progress updates can be obtained from the following Web sites: oee.nrcan.gc.ca/transportation/ghg-memorandum, www.cvma.ca and www.aiamc.com.

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2. First Interim Goal and the Industry’s Performance

The MOU recognized that emissions reductions must be achieved through the use of a variety of technologies that are sold to consumers. The penetration of such technologies, their usage on-road, and the overall emissions reduction performance are dependent on consumer behaviour and the availability of appropriate fuels. It also recognizes that overall GHG reductions are inclusive of the broader slate of greenhouse gases (such as CO2, N2O, CH4, HFCs, etc.) applicable to the light duty vehicle sector as identified under the Kyoto protocol.

For cars and light duty trucks, two significant elements of this reduction effort are improvements in exhaust gas after-treatment to reduce N2O and CH4, and improvements in fuel consumption to reduce CO2.

In Canada, fuel consumption has been measured through the Company Average Fuel Consumption (CAFC) values collected under the government's voluntary Fuel Consumption Program. CAFC calculates the sales-weighted average fuel consumption of each manufacturer's fleet – by model year. The CAFC calculation also provides a fuel consumption credit for alternative-fuel vehicles.

The MOU set the first interim goal for 2007 at 2.4 Mt as a performance measure. Based on the analytical framework developed by Joint Industry Government Committee (the Committee) for the MOU, the automotive industry has achieved a GHG emission reduction of 3.1 Mt without the alternative fuel credits and 3.4 Mt with the inclusion of alternative fuel credits.

These performance metrics demonstrate that the first interim goal under the MOU has been met. In fact, the analysis shows that the industry’s performance for 2007 also exceeds the interim goal for 2008 which further demonstrates the very significant progress that has been made.

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3. Joint Government-Industry GHG MOU Committee Activities

3.1 Data Aspects and the Analytical Framework

Since the publication of the Third Progress Update, the Committee continued its work on the data aspects and the analytical framework (or tracking model) so that progress toward the goals of the MOU could be monitored.

The Committee focused on ensuring that the analytical framework was appropriate and consistent with the MOU so that industry’s progress against the goals could be measured and reported.

As noted previously, the progress updates describe refinements to the analytical framework that were being undertaken by the Committee. Such refinements were required since this analytical framework measures GHG emissions reductions relative to a “reference case” level of emissions. The reference case is based on the 2010 forecast in the 1999 Transportation Table Report on Climate Change (study 3), which drew its assumptions on vehicle-related GHG emissions from Canada’s Emissions Outlook: An Update, published in December 1999.

Since the model developed and used by the Transportation Table in 1999 (“CHAMPAGNE model”) was designed to forecast GHG emissions from the transportation sector at five-year intervals, the Committee has developed an analytical framework that permits tracking of GHG emissions on an annual basis, while maintaining consistency and correlation to the model as outlined in the MOU. Tracking of emissions (as opposed to forecasts) also required that appropriate data sources be identified for this model and for all factors that contribute to emissions reductions.

To measure progress under the MOU, the analytical framework must calculate reference case emissions and compare them to levels calculated in the performance case for each year. The difference between these two cases represents industry’s achievement against the goal for the subject year.

To maintain a methodology that is consistent with the approach taken by the 1999 Transportation Table, the analytical framework incorporates the same factors included in the CHAMPAGNE model – such as vehicle fuel consumption reported by manufacturers under the voluntary fuel consumption program, vehicle stock and vehicle kilometres travelled – as well as various adjustment factors for converting laboratory fuel consumption numbers to on-road performance.

Annex 2 of the MOU states that there are key variables that determine vehicles emissions. Two types of variables can be distinguished:

  1. endogenous factors that can be directly controlled by industry to affect vehicle emissions. Examples would be engine fuel efficiency, fuel consumption degradation factors (on-road versus tested) and emissions factors relating to other GHGs, such as nitrous oxide, methane and HFCs.

  2. exogenous factors that cannot be directly controlled by industry but that can directly or indirectly influence vehicle emissions. Examples would be vehicle sales and sales mix, scrappage of vehicles, and annual kilometres travelled by vehicle age.

Updates of factors directly under the control of industry would normally not be subject to further updating for the purposes of the reference case against which performance will be measured. Improvement in actual performance against these factors throughout the period of the MOU would be the means by which industry made progress against the emissions target.

Updates of factors outside the industry’s control would be made and the Reference Case adjusted to ensure that the calculated impact of industry’s efforts to meet the emissions reduction target fairly reflects industry’s efforts.

Figure 1 provides an illustration of the analytical framework and how it calculates GHG emissions from cars and light-duty trucks from the performance case in relation to the reference case.

Figure 1: Schematic of the GHG MOU analytical framework

Analytical framework

1 Exogenous = External factors that cannot be directly controlled by industry but that can directly or indirectly influence vehicle emissions.

2 Endogenous = Factors that can be controlled by industry to affect vehicle emissions.

The core of the analytical effort has been identifying the data sources to populate the tracking model itself. The Committee has been diligent to ensure the use of data from recognized sources including data from existing federal government data collection processes such as CAFC data from the Fuel Consumption Program and other sources as deemed appropriate.

It is also important to note that the Committee is responsible for monitoring, reporting, and ensuring accountability for the MOU.

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3.2 Analytical Framework Verification

In its 2006 Report – Managing the Federal Approach to Climate Change, the Commissioner of the Environment and Sustainable Development (CESD) acknowledged that the MOU with the automotive industry met many of the requirements established by the Office of the Auditor General of Canada for voluntary agreements. The CESD recommended an improvement with regard to third-party verification for all voluntary agreements. The government will arrange for third-party verification of the analytical framework, its data and results, and will make them publicly available.

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3.3 Outreach Activities

Since the signing of the MOU, the government and industry continued to engage in outreach activities to discuss and share information on the MOU and its intent. The last example was the release of the Third Progress Update.

The Third Progress Update was distributed to government, industry, non-governmental organizations, the academic community and the general public. The Third Progress Update and the previous two update reports are available at the government and industry Web sites (as shown at the end of Section 1 of this report).

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4. Advanced Technology Introductions

Since the signing of the MOU, the industry has continued to introduce many new models that incorporate technologies that can reduce GHGs. Annex 3 of the MOU identified a list of potential improvements to vehicles that could contribute to a reduction in GHG emissions from vehicles. These included, but were not limited to, transmission improvements, engine improvements, other vehicle improvements such as lightweight materials, new engine technologies that use a diversity of fuels (ethanol, diesel, biodiesel, etc.) and advanced technology vehicles. Appendix C of this report builds on the technology information contained in the First, Second and Third Progress Updates. It provides a detailed, but by no means comprehensive listing of models and new vehicle technologies that have enabled industry to meet the 2007 interim goal, and that are planned for 2008 and 2009 model vehicles.

The examples below serve to highlight some of these technologies.

Figure 2: Technology: Advanced Diesel After Treatment System

Technology: Advanced Diesel After Treatment System

The Advanced Diesel Aftertreatment system is a modular emissions control system that reduces nitrogen oxides in particular. These are exhaust components from diesel engines, which, as a result of the constraints inherent in the diesel combustion process, exceed the levels generated by gasoline-fuelled spark-ignition engines. An oxidation-type catalytic converter and particulate filter are combined with an NOx storage catalytic converter and an additional catalytic converter. Advanced diesel vehicles in general also consume 20 to 40 percent less fuel than comparable vehicles with spark-ignition engines.

Figure 3: Technology: Variable Valve Timing & Cylinder Deactivation

Technology: Cylinder Deactivation

Variable valve timing (VVT) improves fuel economy in two ways. It reduces the engine’s pumping work by closing the intake valve at the optimum point for each load condition, and it increases the expansion process of the combustion event, which improves engine efficiency and power. Unlike conventional fixed-valve timing engines that use the same timing for low and high engine speeds and low and high power demands, VVT systems make it possible to optimize the valve timing for efficiency and performance across a broad range of operating conditions.


Cylinder deactivation selectively shuts down engine cylinders based upon power demand. In effect, it allows a larger engine to operate like a small one during cruise operations while still providing the required power for towing and acceleration. The reduced friction and pumping losses provide improved fuel efficiency.

Figure 4: Technology: Hybrid

Technology: Hybrid

Hybrid technology combines an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. Hybrid technology typically achieves greater fuel economy than the conventional internal combustion engine vehicles, resulting in fewer emissions being generated.

Figure 5: Technology: 8-speed automatic transmission

8-speed automatic transmission

Eight-speed automatic transmissions enable the engine to operate closer to peak efficiency more of the time, resulting in better overall vehicle performance and fuel efficiency.

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Appendix A – GHG Memorandum of Understanding

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA AND THE CANADIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY RESPECTING AUTOMOBILE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

This Memorandum of Understanding signed and dated at Windsor, Ontario on the 5th day of April,2005

Between:

Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of Natural Resources Canada (Hereinafter “Government of Canada”)

Of the First Part

And

The Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers' Association (“CVMA”) and the Association of International Automobile Manufacturers of Canada (“AIAMC”), consisting of the Associations' member companies listed in Annex 1 (Hereinafter the “Canadian Automotive Industry”)

Of the Second Part

This is a Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) respecting the action to be taken by the Canadian Automotive Industry relating to the undertaking given by the Government of Canada to address climate change pursuant to the Kyoto Protocol and is intended to provide a framework for the actions that will be taken by the Canadian Automotive Industry to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases (“GHG”) produced by light duty motor vehicles operating in Canada.

PREAMBLE

WHEREAS the Government of Canada and the Canadian Automotive Industry are in agreement that action will be taken to reduce the growth of GHG emissions in Canada.

AND WHEREAS the Government of Canada has stated this country's resolve to address its climate change commitments under the Kyoto Protocol;

AND WHEREAS the Parties are committed to building on existing achievements to reduce GHG emissions and improving fuel efficiency through improvements in vehicle technology, and in the operation and maintenance of vehicles in Canada;

AND WHEREAS the Government of Canada acknowledges that the Canadian Automotive Industry has made significant progress in reducing GHG emissions and improving fuel efficiency since 1990;

AND WHEREAS the Parties recognize the important need to balance the concomitant goals of improving vehicle safety, addressing vehicle smog-causing emissions and maintaining consumer choice;

AND WHEREAS this MOU does not require add,itional fiscal measures by the Government of Canada to assist the introduction of new technologies to achieve the GHG objectives of the Canadian Automotive Industry;

AND WHEREAS the Canadian Automotive Industry has shown good faith in meeting their commitments in other Memoranda of Understanding and are currently parties to numerous successful active agreements;

AND WHEREAS the Parties acknowledge that this MOU is unique because it targets GHG emission reductions that will be achieved by this sector through the products that are sold and therefore are also dependent on consumer behaviour and the availability of appropriate fuels;

AND WHEREAS the Parties agree on the importance of mutual goals of attracting new investment to Canada, stimulating economic growth and ensuring the continued competitiveness of the Canadian Automotive Industry as progress is being made to reduce GHG emissions. In this regard, the Parties recognize the integrated nature of the North American auto market and the engineering and production lead times for introducing new technologies to market.

In recognition of the preceding paragraphs which are hereby incorporated into and form part of this MOU, the Parties agree as follows:

COMMITMENT

1. This MOU voluntarily commits the Canadian Automotive Industry to achieving a 5.3 Mt reduction in GHG emissions from the light duty vehicle sector (cars and light duty trucks) in 2010 relative to the reference case, which will be the benchmark against which GHG emission reductions will be counted. The reference case is based on the 2010 forecast in the 1999 Transportation Table Report (Study 3) on Climate Change, which drew its assumptions on vehicle emissions from NRCan's 1999 emissions forecast Canada's Emissions Outlook. The reference case shall be updated in accord with the principles and procedures described in Annex 2.

2. The Parties agree that the Canadian Automotive Industry GHG performance calculation will include all GHGs recognized under the Kyoto Protocol that apply to the Canadian Automotive Industry. These include CO2, N2O, CH4,, HFCs and other Kyoto gases that are equated to a CO2 equivalent value (CO2e) in Mt.

3. The Canadian Automotive Industry will focus efforts on the introduction into the Canadian market place of advanced emission technologies, advanced diesel technology, alternative fuel vehicles, hybrids, high fuel efficiency technologies, and other GHG reducing technologies to accomplish the 5.3 Mt reduction (Examples of GHG reducing technologies are listed in Annex 3).

4. The Canadian Automotive Industry will support automotive research and development in Canada in the areas of lightweight materials, alternative fuels, hydrogen fuel cells and infrastructure, and other advances.

JOINT COMMITTEE

5. The Parties will form a joint Industry Government Committee (the "Committee") to ensure accountability for this MOU

6. The Committee will be formed within 60 days from the signing of this MOU, will be composed of equal numbers of Oovernment and industry members, and will be cochaired. The Committee will table a mandate and its operational plan for approval by the parties no later than 180 days from the signing ofthis MOU. The design of the Committee will provide for mediation for early resolution of technical differences.

7. The Committee will assess and determine the application and use of equivalence factors associated with fuels and individual GHGs. The Committee will perform ongoing analysis of the internal and material external factors impacting automotive GHG emissions and wnere appropriate, will advise on remedial actions for the Canadian Automotive Industry to fulfill its voluntary commitment referenced in paragraph 1 by 2010.

8. The Committee will analyze GHG data and publicly report total industry performance on an annual basis, with interim projections of performance for the subject reporting year. The Committee will be responsible for monitoring and reporting of progress. The Committee will draw from existing federal government data collection processes such as Transport Canada's VFEIS program and Environment Canada's Tier 2 vehicle emissions data base and other such sources as deemed appropriate.

INTERIM GOALS

9. The Parties agree to interim GHG emission reduction goals of 2.4 Mt in 2007, 3.0 Mt in 2008 and 3.9 Mt in 2009, to be measured against the Reference Case for the subject year. Commencing in 2005, the Canadian Automotive Industry will report its projections for GHG emissions for the coming model year by November 30. Actual performance shall be reported for each model year by May 31 following the model year. The Committee will use these forecasts and reports to track progress towards the 2010 objective.

LEGAL LIABILITY

10. While this MOU does not constitute or establish a legally binding agreement, the Parties confirm that this MOU reflects their mutual desire to work cooperatively to address the challenges posed by climate change.

11. For greater clarity, the Government of Canada has the right to regulate any and all subjects within the government's purview, and will do so ifit deems necessary.

12. The parties agree that the taking effect of any legislation and its regulatory standards related to a subject covered by this MOU may result in the termination of this MOU without compensation or delay.

DURATION

13. This MOU will come into effect on the day of its signing and will remain in effect until at least December 31, 2010 or until one or both of the Parties determine that such an MOU is no longer desirable. Either party may terminate this MOU by giving 90 days notice in writing to the other party of its intention to end its participation in this understanding, or do so by mutual consent. Within and for the purposes of this MOU, the Parties acknowledge and agree that no further actions or measures are required if interim GHG goals are being met.

14. The Parties will consider additional GHG reduction targets beyond 2010, based on the experience of this MOU.

AMENDMENT

15. The Parties may amend this MOU at any time, in writing, by mutual consent. Any amendment becomes part of this MOU.

NOTICE

16. Any notice under this MOU shall be in writing to the Deputy Minister of Natural Resources Canada and the Presidents of the CVMA and the AIAMC.

IN WltNESS THEREOF, authorized officials of each of She Parties have executed this MOU hereto:

John Efford signature
Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada
as represented by the Minister of Natural Resources
The Honourable R. John Efford

The Canadian Automotive Industry has executed this Memorandum of Understanding of the date specified on the first page of this document by the Board of Directors of the CVMA and the AIAMC, duly authorized for that purpose.

Joseph R. Hinrichs signature
The Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers Association

Joseph R. Hinrichs, Chair, CVMA
and
President and CEO
Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited

Marcus Breitschwerdt signature
The Association of International Automobile Manufacturers of Canada

Marcus Breitschwerdt, Chair, AIAMC and
President and CEO
Mercedes-Benz Canada Inc.

Annex 1

THIS IS ANNEX 1 TO THE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA AND THE CANADIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY MADE AS OF THE 5TH DAY OF APRIL, 2005.

AUTOMOTIVE COMPANIES

BMW CANADA INC.

DAIMLERCHRYSLER CANADA INC.

FORD MOTOR COMPANY OF CANADA, LIMITED

GENERAL MOTORS OF CANADA LIMITED

HONDA CANADA INC.

HYUNDAI AUTO CANADA

JAGUAR CANADA, A DIVISION OF FORD MOTOR COMPANY OF CANADA, LIMITED

KIA MOTORS CANADA INC.

LAND ROVER CANADA, DIVISION OF FORD MOTOR COMPANY OF CANADA, LIMITED

MAZDA CANADA INC.

MERCEDES-BENZ CANADA INC.

MITSUBISHI MOTOR SALES OF CANADA INC.

NISSAN CANADA INC.

PORSCHE CARS CANADA LTD.

SUBARU CANADA, INC.

SUZUKI CANADA INC.

TOYOTA CANADA INC.

VOLKSWAGEN CANADA INC.

VOLVO CARS OF CANADA LTD.

Annex 2

THIS IS ANNEX 2 TO THE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA AND THE CANADIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY MADE AS OF THE 5TH DAY OF APRIL, 2005.

Reference Case

This MOU voluntarily commits the Canadian Automotive Industry to achieving a 5.3 Mt reduction in GHG emissions for the Light Duty Vehicle Sector in 2010. The reference case GHG emissions for 2010, as the benchmark against which GHG emission reductions will be counted, is based on the 2010 forecast in the 1999 Transportation Table Report on Climate Change (Study 3), which drew its assumptions on vehicle emissions from NRCan’s 1999 emissions forecast Canada’s Emissions Outlook: An Update, December 1999 and the detailed tables in the annex to the Outlook, which are located at: www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ceo/update.htm. The reference case GHG emissions for the light-duty vehicle sector in 2010 are 90.51 Mt of CO2e.

Study 3 of the Vehicles and Fuels subcommittee, Transportation Climate Change Issues Table 1999, titled Road Vehicle & Fuels Technology Measures Analysis, determined the emissions reduction potential of various measures affecting technology and other changes in motor vehicles and is the source of the analysis behind the reductions cited in this MOU. The study can be located at: http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/
climatechange/subgroups1/vehicle_technology/Vehicle_technology_sub.htm. Study 3 contains detailed assumptions on key variables that determine vehicle emissions. Two types of variables can be distinguished:

  • factors which can be directly controlled by industry to affect vehicle emissions; examples would be engine fuel efficiency, fuel consumption degradation factors (on-road vs. tested), emissions factors relating to other greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide, methane and HFCs.
  • external factors that cannot be directly controlled by industry but which can directly or indirectly influence vehicle emissions; examples would be vehicle sales and sales mix, scrappage of vehicles, and annual kilometres travelled by vehicle age.

Updates of factors directly under the control of industry would normally not be subject to further updating for the purposes of the Reference Case against which performance will be measured. Improvement in actual performance against these factors throughout the period of the MOU would be the means by which industry made progress against the emissions target.

Updates of factors outside of industry’s control would be made and the Reference Case adjusted to ensure that the calculated impact of industry efforts to meet the emissions reduction target fairly reflects industry’s efforts.

As may be necessary, a professional third party, acceptable to both Parties acting reasonably, may be enlisted to assist in the assessment of both internal and external factors impacting the measures necessary for the Canadian Automobile Industry to achieve its GHG reduction goal. Either the government or industry may invoke the right to have a mutually agreed third party mediate in cases where there is disagreement over the treatment of a factor.

Annex 3

THIS IS ANNEX 3 TO THE MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN THE GOVERNMENT OF CANADA AND THE CANADIAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY MADE AS OF THE 5TH DAY OF APRIL, 2005.

BELOW IS A LIST OF POTENTIAL TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENTS TO VEHICLES THAT WOULD CONTRIBUTE TO A REDUCTION IN GHG EMISSIONS FROM VEHICLES.

Note: Most of these technologies have related effects requiring re-engineering of associated systems, increased computer power and software sophistication, changes to assembly procedures and supplier systems. Some technologies will require further research, development and engineering work or may not be appropriate, feasible or cost-effective in certain vehicle applications.

Powertrain Improvements and Features

Transmission

  • Continuously Variable Transmission
    • Enables the engine to run precisely at peak efficiency under a wide range of vehicle operating conditions
  • 6+ Speed Transmissions
    • Enables the engine to operate closer to peak efficiency more of the time
  • Advanced Overdrive Systems
    • Enables the engine to operate at lower speed during highway operation, reducing friction losses & improving fuel efficiency (FE)
  • Electronically Controlled Torque Converters
    • Adjusts torque converter settings to most efficiently match engine & transmission operation to vehicle requirements

Engine

  • Cylinder Deactivation (Displacement on Demand, Variable Cylinder Management, etc.)
    • Application to V6 & V8 engines
    • Selectively shuts down engine cylinders based upon power demand
    • Cuts fuel, ignition & valve activity in certain cylinders
    • Reduced friction & pumping losses provide improved FE
  • Turbocharging & Supercharging
    • Allows engine downsizing while maintaining required peak power
    • Smaller engine produces fewer friction & pumping losses
  • Variable Valve Timing & Lift (V V T)
    • Optimizes valve operation over entire engine speed & load range
    • Engine produces more power, enabling downsizing & improved FE

Other forms of valve control used to enhance engine efficiency include:

  • Two Stage Valve Timing & Lift
    • Valve timing & lift are selected for either high or low engine speed
    • Engine produces more power in low & high speed operating modes than with single stage timing, enabling downsizing & improved FE
  • Variable Valve Load Control
    • Enables control of engine load without use of throttle
    • Reduced pumping losses result in improved FE
  • Cam Phasers
    • Optimizes relative cam timing on twin overhead cam engines
    • Engine produces more power, enabling downsizing & improved FE
  • Electronic Throttle Control
    • More quickly responds to changing engine operating conditions
    • Less unburned fuel due to more precise control leading to improved FE
  • Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI)
    • Fuel is injected directly into combustion chambers rather than intake
    • More efficient distribution of air/fuel mixture results in gasoline engines
  • Variable Induction Tuning
    • Adjusts intake geometry maximizing air flow efficiency throughout the engine’s speed range
    • Engine produces more power, enabling downsizing & improved FE
  • Port Deactivation
    • Selective actuation of individual valves in a multi-valve head
    • Reduces internal engine friction, improving FE
  • Low Friction Engine Technologies
    • Reduced friction, parasitic and pumping losses due to low tension piston rings, ceramic coatings, roller lifters, etc.
  • OBD II (On Board Diagnostics)
    • Continuous monitoring detects & flags deterioration in engine performance which may affect FE
  • Common Rail Direct Injection for Diesels
    • More efficient delivery of fuel to the cylinders (variable injection rate)
    • Improved engine efficiency especially during cold starts & reduced load
  • Engine Start Stop Systems
    • Shuts down engine when power is not needed
    • Reduced idle fuel consumption improves FE
  • Dual Ignition
    • Reduces combustion time & incidence of misfire
    • Engine efficiency increased through improved combustion
  • Combustion Optimization
    • Enhanced air/fuel mixing, advanced ignition timing strategies, etc.
    • Engine efficiency increased through improved combustion
  • Reduced Friction Lubricants & Monitoring
    • Advanced lubricants reduce friction losses between moving engine, transmission & differential components, improving FE
    • Engine lubricant monitoring promotes
  • Advanced Diesel Catalyst Systems
    • Advanced catalysts required to meet stringent new emission standards
    • May enable high efficiency diesel engines to be used in future vehicles
  • Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems
    • Additional aftertreatment for reduction of NOx in diesel engines
    • May enable high efficiency diesel engines to be used in future vehicles
  • Advanced Diesel Engines
    • Use of electronic fuel injection enhances combustion efficiency

Other Improvements (Applied to the Powertrain)

  • System Controls for Towing & Heavy Loads
    • Optimizes powertrain management under heavy loads
  • Regulated Voltage Controlled Fuel Pumps
    • Electrical energy consumption varies with engine fuel demand
  • Electric Coolant & Power Steering Pumps
    • Reduced weight & parasitic losses by elimination of belts & pulleys
  • Advanced Powertrain Controls
    • More comprehensive management of engine & transmission
    • Drivetrain components are more closely matched under a wider range of speed & load conditions, for improved FE
  • High Efficiency Alternators
    • Reduce energy losses in production of vehicle electrical power
    • Improved FE due to decreased alternator power requirements
  • Hydraulic Cooling Systems
    • Draws power only when needed to cool engine

Other Improvements (Applied to the Entire Vehicle)

  • Lightweight Materials
    • Reduce weight without compromising safety compliance
    • Moving less weight requires less fuel
  • Advanced Modelling Tools
    • Drivetrain components are designed and manufactured using advanced systems and processes incorporating the latest technology
    • Vehicles are designed to meet or exceed all owner expectations in addition to satisfying all laboratory test requirements
  • Improved Aerodynamics
    • Reduces drag & power demand, especially at highway speeds
    • Less power is required, improving FE
  • Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS)
    • Signals out-of-range air pressure in one or more tires
    • Low air pressure can have a significant negative impact on FE
  • Low Rolling Resistance Tires
    • Produce less drag & reduced power requirements, improving FE
  • Alternative Fuels
    • Renewable fuels such as ethanol (E10, E85), biodiesel & hydrogen produce much lower levels of GHGs than fossil fuels
  • Hybrid Technology Vehicles
  • Advanced Simulation & System Optimization Methods
    • Drivetrain components are designed & manufactured using advanced systems & processes incorporating the latest technology
    • Vehicle components incorporate the same advanced technology throughout all vehicle subsystems to maximize FE & durability
  • On-Road Optimization
    • Vehicles are designed to meet or exceed all owner expectations in addition to satisfying all laboratory test requirements
  • Future Hydrogen Technology Vehicles

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Appendix B – Joint Government-Industry GHG MOU Committee – Terms of Reference

TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE JOINT GHG MOU COMMITTEE

The Government-Industry Monitoring Committee established pursuant to the MOU to track GHG Emissions from Light Duty Vehicles (the “Committee”)

Background

On April 5, 2005, the Government of Canada and the Canadian automotive industry signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) whereby the Canadian automobile industry voluntarily committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the light-duty vehicle sector (cars and light-duty trucks) in Canada, to achieve a reduction in GHG emissions of 5.3 megatonnes (Mt) in 2010 relative to the reference case.

Mandate

The Committee is a key component of the MOU, responsible for tracking progress toward the industry’s commitment to achieve a 5.3-Mt reduction target. The MOU provides for the following activities by the Committee:

  • Data Collection – Identify the range and nature of data needed to track performance and to populate the tracking model(s) and define submission and reporting requirements as required. The Committee will draw from existing federal government data collection processes such as Transport Canada’s VFEIS program and Environment Canada’s Tier 2 vehicle emissions database and other such sources as deemed appropriate.

  • Reference Case Updates – The reference case shall be updated in accordance with the principles and procedures described in Annex 2 of the MOU, to reflect new and up-to-date data as they become available.

  • Monitoring and Forecasting – Once the reference case is established, the Committee will establish the approach and procedures for tracking performance against the interim annual goals specified in the MOU (the “Goals”) and the 5.3-Mt reduction commitment. The Committee will also establish an agreed-upon system for projecting the performance toward the Goals for the reporting year and perform ongoing analysis of the internal and external factors impacting this performance.

  • Diagnosis – Determine whether industry performance is in line with the Goals; provide recommendations for further actions if industry performance has not achieved, or is not likely to achieve, the Goal for the subject year.

  • Reporting – The Committee will approve an annual public report on total industry performance toward the Goals and a final report on the 5.3-Mt reduction commitment.

  • Progress Updates – The Committee will provide periodic updates on its activities and progress.

The work of the Committee is to be technical in nature, and the chairs will ensure the Committee does not stray into policy issues. The Committee will direct and approve the work to be undertaken. Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) staff will lead the analytical work, with input from other departments and industry, as appropriate. The decision to obtain input from modelling and technical experts will reside with the Committee.

Membership

The Committee will consist of eight members in total, with four representatives each from government and industry. There will be two chairs (co-chairs), one from government and one from industry.

Government representatives on the Committee will include a co-chair from NRCan and one member each from NRCan, Environment Canada and Transport Canada (“Government”).

Industry representatives will include two representatives or industry members from each of the two Canadian motor vehicle manufacturer associations (Canadian Vehicle Manufacturers’ Association and the Association of International Automobile Manufacturers of Canada) (the “Industry”).

Quorum will consist of a minimum of three Government and three Industry members. Member substitution at individual meetings will not be considered, but replacement members may be required in the future, if appointed members become unavailable.

Government and industry will choose their own representatives with their appointment not requiring the approval of the Committee.

Decision Making

The Committee will operate through a consensus, while respecting the views of those who may disagree from time to time.

As may be necessary, a professional third party, acceptable to both Government and industry, acting reasonably, may be enlisted to assist in the assessment of “technical issues” when the Committee cannot reach agreement. Either the Government or industry may invoke the right to have a mutually agreed third party mediate in cases in which there is disagreement over technical issues.

Term of the Committee

The Committee will remain active until:

  • the time when a report and conclusion can be made relating to the 5.3-Mt reduction commitment in the year 2010; or
  • December 31, 2012; or
  • termination of the MOU.

Milestones

As provided in the MOU, the Committee was formed within 60 days of the MOU’s signing (April 5, 2005). The Committee will table a mandate and its operational plan for approval no later than 180 days from the signing of the MOU (Sunday, October 2, 2005).

Administration

Budget

The budget for the Committee will be drawn from the Government of Canada’s climate change funds for the Motor Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Initiative, and the Committee will approve its disposition.

Secretary

A secretary shall be approved by the Committee and need not be a member of the Committee. The secretary will work closely with the Committee but will not be a voting member unless the secretary is a member of the Committee otherwise than as a secretary.

The secretary will be responsible for:

  • convening meetings
  • recording decisions
  • following up on actions
  • drafting correspondence
  • administrative support to Committee activities such as data procurement, analysis, contracting and preparation of materials

Meeting Frequency

Meetings shall be scheduled semi-annually for the duration of the MOU. The co-chairs may also call meetings, when required. Initially, more frequent meetings will be required to establish the work of the Committee.

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Appendix C – Advanced Technology Introductions by the Automotive Industry

BMW Canada Inc.

  • 2009 MY 335d and X5 xDrive35d: new model variants incorporating:
    • Variable twin turbo 3.0L in-line six cylinder diesel engine with aluminum crankcase, and common-rail direct injection
    • 6-speed automatic transmission
    • Selective catalytic reduction
  • 2009 MY X6 xDrive50i: new model variant incorporating:
    • 4.4L twin turbo V8 engine with high precision direct injection
    • 6-speed automatic transmission
  • 2009 MY 7 Series: all new vehicle incorporating:
    • 4.4L twin turbo V8 engine with high precision direct injection
    • 6-speed automatic transmission
    • Chassis constructed of lightweight steel and aluminum
  • 2008 MY X6 xDrive35i - incorporates the following technology:
    • 3.0L twin-turbo engine with high precision direct injection
    • 6-speed automatic transmission
  • 2008 MY M3: available 7-speed M double clutch transmission with drivelogic
  • 2008 MY 535i, 535xi Sedan, Touring and 550i: introduction of active cruise control with stop and go feature
  • 2008 MY 535i, 535xi Sedan and Touring: introduction of new 3.0-litre twin-turbo engine incorporating high precision direct fuel injection
  • 2008 MY 5 Series: addition of standard tire pressure monitoring system
  • 2008 MY 323i: addition of standard cruise control
  • 2008 MY 328i and 335i: addition of electronic limited slip differential
  • 2008 MY 1 Series: new model variants incorporating the following technology:
    • valvetronic technology on 128i – incorporates both variable valve timing and variable valve lift
    • 6-speed manual and 6-speed automatic transmissions
    • magnesium-aluminum engine crankcases to reduce weight
    • 135i variant to incorporate 3.0-litre twin-turbo engine incorporating high precision direct injection
  • 2008 MY M3: incorporates the following lightweight construction technology:
    • all new V8 engine utilizing aluminum/silicon alloy
    • seamless stainless steel exhaust pipes
    • carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic roof
    • nearly all front and rear suspension components made of aluminum
    • aluminum hood
  • 2007 3 Series Coupe and Cabriolet: introduction of valvetronic technology on all model variants – incorporates both variable valve timing and variable valve lift
  • 2007 3 Series Coupe and Cabriolet: introduction of new 6-speed manual and 6-speed automatic transmissions on all model variants (formerly 6-speed manual only on 330Ci variants)
  • 2007 X3: introduction of valvetronic technology on 6-cylinder engines
  • 2007 X3: introduction of new 6-speed automatic transmission (formerly 5 speed)
  • 2007 X5: introduction of valvetronic technology on 6-cylinder engine
  • 2007 X5: introduction of new 6-speed automatic transmission on 6-cylinder variants (formerly 5 speed)
  • 2007 MINI Cooper: new 1.6-L, 4-cylinder engine – 30% lighter aluminum engine block, new introduction of fully variable valve timing
  • 2007 MINI Cooper: new 6-speed manual transmission (formerly 5 speed)
  • 2007 MINI Cooper S: new 1.6-L, 4-cylinder engine – 30% lighter aluminum engine block, new direct injection
  • 2007 MINI Cooper and Cooper S: new aluminum multi-link rear suspension components – reduced weight

Chrysler Canada Inc.

  • 2009 All-new 5.7-litre HEMI® – several technologies were added or improved. Variable Valve Timing (VVT) improves fuel economy under some conditions in two ways. First it reduces the engine’s pumping work by closing the intake valve later and second it increases the expansion process of the combustion event, which improves engine efficiency and power. Also, expanded operating range of the fuel-saving Multiple Displacement System (MDS), increased compression ratio, active intake manifold with long runners for low-end torque and short runners for high-rpm power, improved cylinder head port flow efficiency, and reduced-restriction exhaust and induction systems. The result is improved idle quality and overall refinement, improved horsepower, improved torque and better fuel economy.
  • 2009 New Full-size Light-Duty Dodge Ram Pickup. Low coefficient of drag through design change details for crew-size 4x4 models to assist with fuel economy, advanced high strength steel contributes to durability and lighter vehicle weight. With 5.7 L HEMI®, when MDS is operating it is indicated by the fuel-economy-mode readout in the Electronic Vehicle Information Center (EVIC).
  • 2009 Chrysler Aspen HEMI® Hybrid. Multi-displacement System (MDS) combined with the advanced two-mode hybrid system. This provides a 33 percent fuel consumption improvement in the city and 25 percent improvement overall. MDS technology allows the engine to seamlessly alternate between four-cylinder mode when less power is needed and V-8 mode when more power is in demand. The two-mode hybrid system uses electric motors to allow the HEM®I V-8 to remain in four-cylinder mode more often, improving fuel economy.
  • 2009 Dodge Journey – R/T and R/T all-wheel-drive models feature a standard six-speed automatic transaxle
  • 2009 Grand Caravan 4.0 L single overhead cam (SOHC) aluminum block V6, 24-valve, high compression 10.3:1, and improved fuel economy
  • 2008 Redesigned 4.7 L engine. Increased torque, FFV capability, and enhanced fuel economy. The changes involved the combustion system components; second spark plug on the exhaust side of the combustion chamber to enhance idle quality and part throttle emissions
  • 2008 Biodiesel, B5, compatible for Grand Cherokee, Sprinter, and Ram Diesels
  • 2008 model year: new Dodge Grand Caravan / Chrysler Town & Country uses new 6-speed automatic transmission
  • 2008 model year: new Dodge Grand Caravan FFV (ethanol-E85 flexible fuel vehicle) now standard with 3.3-litre engine
  • 2008 model year: new Dodge Avenger offering of ethanol (E85) flexible fuel vehicle option
  • 2008 New Viper SRT10’s 8.4-litre engine; new cylinder heads equipped with Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC)-shaped combustion chambers, larger valves and cam-in-cam variable valve timing (VVT) camshaft. VVT electronically adjusts when the exhaust valves are open and closed according to engine speed and load, engine is more clean and efficient
  • 2008 model year: 5.7-litre HEMI®in Chrysler 300C, Dodge Charger and Dodge Magnum with MDS (multi-displacement system) include a “Fuel Saver Mode” display, included as part of the Electronic Vehicle Information Centre (EVIC), that informs drivers when in 4-cylinder mode, allowing them to modify their driving habits for improved fuel efficiency
  • Chrysler prototypes introduced – Three Advanced Electric-drive Vehicles; Chrysler EV: Minivan – Town & Country Range-extended Electric Vehicle and Jeep® EV: SUV – Wrangler 4X4 Range-extended Electric Vehicle The Range-extended Electric Vehicles combines the electric-drive components of the Electric Vehicle with a small gasoline engine and integrated electric generator to produce additional energy to power the electric-drive system when needed and can drive 64 km on all-electric power and have a range of 640 km on approximately 30 L of gasoline. Dodge EV: All-electric Performance Sports Car – electric-drive motor, Chrysler’s Electric Vehicles utilize three primary components; an electric motor to drive the wheels, an advanced lithium-ion battery system to power the electric-drive motor and a controller that manages energy flow. This technology provides customers with a vehicle that has zero tailpipe emissions and a 240-320 km driving range. Recharging the vehicle is a one-step process: plugging into a standard 110-volt household outlet for eight hours.
  • Chrysler and General Electric with the United States Department of Energy work exploring advanced energy-storage technology. The goal is to develop and evaluate dual-battery solutions based on GE’s unique technology.
  • Chrysler, Daimler and the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) project aimed at improving vehicle safety and fuel economy while reducing overall vehicle weight. At the centre of the development is a new Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) modeling tool called topology optimization.
  • 2007 model year: extended offering of ethanol (E85) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) models – Chrysler Sebring, Dodge Caravan, Caravan C/V, Grand Caravan, Grand Caravan C/V, Dodge Ram 1500 2x4, Ram 1500 4x4, Dodge Durango, Dodge Dakota 2x4, Dakota 4x4, Jeep Commander, Jeep Grand Cherokee; 2007 FFVs have bright yellow fuel caps and vehicle badging to allow consumers to know if their vehicle is flex-fuel capable
  • 2007 model year: new Jeep Grand Cherokee CRD with new 3.0-L common rail turbo diesel engine and factory fuelled with 5% biodiesel blend (B5)
  • 2007 model year: new 4.0-L, V6 in Chrysler Pacifica and Dodge Nitro
  • 2007 model year: new 6-speed automatic transmissions in Chrysler Pacifica and Sebring
  • 2007 model year: new Jeep Compass and Jeep Patriot sport utility vehicles with a second generation Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT2)
  • 2007 model year: new Compass and Jeep Patriot four-wheel-drive system requires no front-to-rear slippage for activation. Electronically controlled coupling (ECC), attached to the rear differential, is the heart of the system. The system contributes to good fuel economy by operating only when needed, minimizing power-robbing friction and inertia
  • Continuous design improvements, for example by optimizing fuel pump design, the amperage can be reduced by about 40%; and since fuel pumps run all the time, this results in about 0.1 mpg savings on high-flow applications such as flexible fuel vehicles
  • 2007 model year: new Dodge Caliber compact car available with three new 4-cylinder World Engines with dual Variable Valve Timing (VVT) and intake manifold with flow control valves, improved fuel economy over the engines they replace
  • 2007 model year: new Dodge Caliber compact car available with a second generation Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT2), improved fuel economy compared with a traditional 4-speed automatic
  • Two-mode hybrid development with General Motors and BMW

Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited

  • 2009 F150-Aerodynamic improvements, weight reductions, open-valve injection, reduced idle speed
  • 2009 Ford Escape: 6-speed automatic transmission replaced 4-speed automatic transmission, 2.5L engine, which is more fuel efficient
  • 2009 vehicles will have electrical power steering for reduced engine losses; 31% of vehicles
  • 2009 vehicles will have new, aggressive deceleration fuel shut-off strategies; 38% of vehicles
  • 2009 Econoline with 4.6 and 5.4 litre engines are now FFV (E85 compatible)
  • Tire pressure monitoring systems on all new vehicles offered by Ford in 2009
  • 2008 model year 4.6-litre Explorer Sport-Trac: 6-speed automatic transmission
  • 2008 model year 3.5-litre Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX: 6-speed automatic transmission and variable cam timing
  • 2008 model year: 5.4-litre Expedition: 6-speed automatic transmission
  • 2008 model year: Ford will offer ethanol (E85) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) capability on F-Series trucks, Crown Victoria, Grand Marquis and Town Car
  • 2008 Focus, Explorer, Navigator: higher-efficiency torque converters for automatic transmissions
  • 2008 Focus: F-Series, select Explorers: low rolling resistance tires
  • 2008 Navigator, Expedition, Escape, Explorer, Ranger: improved lubricants for lower engine parasitic losses
  • 2008 Expedition, Explorer, F-Series: reduced engine parasitic losses through improved accessory drives
  • 2008 model year: Tire Pressure Monitor System standard on Edge, MKX, Ranger, Escape, Escape Hybrid, Sport-Trac, Explorer, F150, Mark LT, Expedition, Navigator, Mustang and Focus
  • 2008 Lincoln MKZ: 3.5-L engine with variable intake valve timing and variable cam timing
  • 2007 and 2008 model years: Tire Pressure Monitor System standard on Edge, MKX, Ranger, Escape, Escape Hybrid, Sport-Trac, Explorer, F150, Mark LT, Expedition, Navigator, and, Mustang
  • Tire Pressure Monitor System standard on (2007) Freestar
  • 2007 model year 4.6-L Explorer Sport-Trac: 6-speed automatic transmission
  • 2007 model year 3.5-L Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX: 6-speed automatic transmission and variable cam timing
  • 2007 model year 5.4-L Expedition: 6-speed automatic transmission
  • 2007 model year: Ford will offer ethanol (E85) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) capability on F-Series trucks, Crown Victoria and Grand Marquis
  • 2007 Focus, Explorer, Navigator: higher efficiency torque converters for automatic transmissions
  • 2007 Focus, F-Series, select Explorers: low rolling resistance tires
  • 2007 Navigator, Expedition, Escape, Explorer, Ranger: improved lubricants for lower engine parasitic losses
  • 2007 Navigator, Expedition, Escape, F-Series, Explorer, Ranger: lower aerodynamic drag
  • 2007 Expedition, Explorer, F-Series: reduced engine parasitic losses through improved accessory drives

General Motors of Canada Limited

  • Active Fuel Management (AFM) seamlessly deactivates one half of the cylinders under light loads to provide fuel savings on a wide array of engine applications: 2009 Buick Allure Super, Chevrolet Avalanche, Impala SS, Silverado, Suburban, Tahoe, and Trailblazer, GMC Envoy, Yukon and Yukon XL, Pontiac G8 GT and Saab 9-7X.
  • Flexible Fuel Ethanol (E85) capability standard or optional on: 2009 Buick Lucerne, Cadillac Escalade, Escalade ESV, and Escalade EXT, Chevrolet Avalanche, Express Wagon and Van, HHR and HHR Panel, Impala V6 models, Malibu, Silverado, Suburban, and Tahoe, GMC Sierra, Savana Wagon and Van, Yukon and Yukon XL, Hummer H2, and Pontiac G6.
  • Improved power density through turbo-charging facilitates the use of smaller displacement engines: 2009 Chevrolet Cobalt SS, Pontiac Solstice, Saab 9-3 and 9-5 and Saturn Sky
  • Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) gasoline engines on 2009 Buick Enclave, Cadillac CTS and STS, Chevrolet Cobalt SS, HHR SS, HHR Panel SS, Traverse, GMC Acadia, Pontiac Solstice GXP, Saturn Outlook and Sky Red Line provide improved power output while using less fuel.
  • 2009 Saturn Vue and Aura Green Line and Chevrolet Malibu Hybrids: their combination of price and fuel-consumption benefits is intended to make these the best-value hybrid systems on the market
  • 2009 Saturn Vue Two Mode Hybrid: the first front/all wheel drive compact two mode hybrid SUV provides unparalleled utility and fuel efficiency in the segment.
  • 2009 Cadillac Escalade, Chevrolet Tahoe and Silverado, GMC Sierra and Yukon Two Mode Hybrids: leverage GM’s leadership in automatic transmissions and electronic controls with integrated, powerful and compact electric motors to provide full hybrid capability and fuel efficiency as well as superior acceleration and continuous power
  • Fuel-saving 6-speed automatic transmissions standard or optional on: 2009 Buick Enclave, Cadillac CTS, STS, SRX, XLR and Escalade, Chevrolet Corvette, Malibu, Equinox, Silverado and Tahoe, Pontiac G6 and Torrent, Saturn Aura, Vue and Outlook, Saab 9-3, GMC Acadia, Sierra, Yukon, Yukon Denali and Sierra Denali.
  • Fuel saving 6-speed Allison 1000 series automatic transmission applied to certain pickup trucks: 2009 Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra
  • XFE Optimized Fuel Efficiency Packages: including low roll resistance tires, optimized efficiency powertrains and axle ratios, aerodynamic improvements, and light weight materials: 2009 Chevrolet Cobalt, Silverado, and Tahoe, Pontiac G5, GMC Sierra and Yukon.
  • Active Fuel Management (AFM) seamlessly deactivates 3 or 4 cylinders under light loads to provide fuel savings on a wide array of V6 or V8 engine applications: 2008 Trailblazer / Envoy, 2008 Saab 9-7X, 2008 Tahoe / Suburban, 2008 Yukon / Yukon XL, 2008 Grand Prix GXP, 2008 Impala SS, 2008 Impala LTZ, 2008 Avalanche, Silverado and Sierra
  • Ethanol (E85) blended fuel standard or optional on 2008 Chevrolet Impala V6 models, GMC and Chevrolet full-size pickup trucks and SUVs, including the 2008 Tahoe, Suburban, Avalanche, Silverado, Yukon, Yukon XL and Sierra and 2008 Chevrolet Uplander, Pontiac Montana SV6, Chevrolet Express and GMC Savana
  • Improved power density through supercharging and turbocharging facilitates the use of smaller-displacement engines: 2008 Chevrolet Cobalt SS, Saab 9-3, Saab 9-5, 2008 Pontiac Solstice and Saturn Sky
  • Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) gasoline engines on 2008 Pontiac Solstice, Saturn Sky, Chevrolet Cobalt SS and HHR SS, and Cadillac CTS and STS provide improved power output while using less fuel.
  • 2008 Saturn Vue and Aura Green Line and 2008 Malibu Hybrids: combination of price and reduced fuel-consumption benefits is intended to make these the best-value hybrid systems on the market
  • 2008 Tahoe / Yukon Two Mode Hybrid: leverages GM’s leadership in automatic transmissions and electronic controls with integrated, powerful and compact electric motors to provide full hybrid capability and fuel efficiency as well as superior acceleration and continuous power
  • Fuel-saving 6-speed automatic transmissions offered on: 2008 Cadillac CTS, STS, SRX and XLR, and Escalade, Chevrolet Corvette, Malibu, Equinox and Tahoe, Pontiac G6 and Torrent, Saturn Aura, Vue and Outlook, Saab 9-3, Buick Enclave, GMC Acadia, Yukon, Yukon Denali and Sierra Denali
  • Fuel saving 6-speed Allison 1000 series automatic transmission applied to certain pickup trucks: 2008 Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra
  • GM offers a range of 4-, 5-, 6- and 8-cylinder engines with variable valve timing (VVT). The 2006 model year Impala has the first cam-in-block VVT application in the industry
  • Active Fuel Management (AFM) seamlessly deactivates 3 or 4 cylinders under light loads to provide fuel savings on a wide array of V6 or V8 engine applications: 2007 Trailblazer / Envoy, 2007 Trailblazer EXT / Envoy XL, 2007 Saab 9-7X, 2007 Rainier, 2007 Tahoe / Suburban, 2007 Yukon / Yukon XL, 2007 Grand Prix GXP, 2007 Monte Carlo and Impala SS, 2007 Impala LTZ, 2007 Avalanche / Silverado and Sierra
  • Ethanol-blended (E85) fuel option available on 2007 Chevrolet Impala, GMC and Chevrolet full-size pickup trucks and SUVs, including the Tahoe, Suburban, Avalanche, Silverado, Yukon and Sierra and 2007 Chevrolet Monte Carlo, Uplander, Pontiac Montana SV6, Saturn Relay and Buick Terraza
  • Improved power density through supercharging and turbocharging facilitates the use of smaller displacement engines: 2007 Chevrolet Cobalt SS, Saturn Ion Red-Line, Saab 9-3, Saab 9-5, 2007 Pontiac Solstice and Saturn Sky
  • Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) gasoline engines on 2007 Pontiac Solstice and Saturn Sky provide improved power output while using less fuel
  • GM-patented Regulated Voltage Control (RVC) technology optimizes battery charging for improved fuel efficiency: broad portfolio application
  • GM’s hybrid propulsion system is currently offered on transit buses providing significantly better fuel efficiency than traditional transit buses and dramatically reduced emissions
  • Hybrid pickup truck: 2006/7 GMC Sierra and Chevrolet Silverado models
  • 2007 Saturn VUE, Aura Green Line and 2008 Malibu Hybrids – combination of price and reduced fuel consumption benefits are intended to make these the best value hybrid systems on the market
  • 2008 Tahoe/Yukon Two Mode Hybrid: leverages GM’s leadership in automatic transmissions and electronic controls with integrated, powerful and compact electric motors to provide full hybrid capability and efficiency as well as superior acceleration and continuous power
  • Fuel-saving 6-speed automatic transmissions offered on 2007 Cadillac STS, XLR, Chevrolet Corvette, Pontiac G6, Saturn Aura, GMC Acadia, Saturn Outlook
  • Fuel-saving 6-speed Allison 1000 series automatic transmission applied to certain pickup trucks: 2007 Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra
  • GM’s Regional Engineering Centre in Oshawa, Ontario, continues to work on the development and application of hybrid technology for GM’s global vehicle portfolio and hydrogen-fuel-cell-powered Chevrolet Equinox vehicles destined for public demonstrations

Honda Canada Inc.

  • Revolutionary 3/4/6-cylinder mode Variable Cylinder Management: 2009 Pilot, Odyssey EX-L & Touring, Accord V6 AT
  • Electric Power Assisted Steering (EPS) weight reduction and reduced mechanical losses, 2009 Acura CSX, Acura TSX, Acura TL, Honda Fit, Select Honda Civics, Honda S2000
  • 4th-Generation Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) hybrid system with Variable Cylinder Management: 2009 Civic hybrid
  • Dual Spark Plug Ignition (DSI): 2009 Civic hybrid
  • Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT): 2009 Civic hybrid
  • Low rolling resistance tires: 2009 Civic Hybrid, select Civics
  • Hybrid air conditioning system: 2009 Civic hybrid
  • Drive by Wire (DBW): all 2009 models
  • Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS): standard on all 2009 Acura models and 2009 Honda: Pilot, Ridgeline, Odyssey, Element, CR-V and Accord
  • High-output Turbocharged 4-cylinder engine (in lieu of 6 cylinder): 2009 Acura RDX
  • Variable Torque Management System “on demand 4WD”: standard on 2009 Acura RDX (with Super Handling), Acura MDX (with Super Handling), Acura RL (with Super Handling), Acura TL (with Super Handling) and Honda Ridgeline, Honda Pilot 4WD
  • Real Time 4WD (on demand 4WD): optional on 2009 Honda CR-V and Honda Element
  • Smart A/C: 2009 Honda Pilot, Acura TL, MDX (The air conditioning system can monitor the cabin conditions and shut off the A/C compressor and turn to partial recirculation mode in order to reduce the load on the engine and improve fuel economy when the HVAC is set to AUTO mode.
  • Intelligent Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control + Variable Timing Control (i-VTEC): 2009 Acura RDX, Acura CSX, Acura TSX, 2009 Honda Civic, Honda Fit, Honda Accord (4-cylinder),Honda CR-V, Honda Element
  • Intelligent Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control + Variable Cylinder Management (i-VTEC + VCM): 2009 Honda Odyssey EX-L & Touring, Honda Accord V6 AT and Honda Pilot
  • Variable Valve Timing & Lift Electronic Control (VTEC): 2009 Acura TL, Acura RL, Acura MDX, Honda S2000, Honda Ridgeline, Accord V6 MT
  • 3/6-cylinder mode Variable Cylinder Management: 2008 Odyssey (EX-L and higher trims), Pilot (2WD)
  • 4th-Generation Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) hybrid system with Variable Cylinder Management: 2008 Civic hybrid
  • Revolutionary new 3/4/6-cylinder mode Variable Cylinder Management: 2008 Accord V6 AT
  • DSI (Dual Spark Plug Ignition): 2008 Civic hybrid
  • Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT): 2008 Civic hybrid
  • Low rolling resistance tires: 2008 Civic Hybrid, select Civics
  • Hybrid air conditioning system: 2008 Civic hybrid
  • DBW (Drive by Wire): all 2008 models
  • TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System): standard on 2008 Acura CSX, TSX, TL, RL, RDX and MDX and 2008 Honda: Pilot, Ridgeline, Odyssey, Element, CR-V and Accord
  • High-output Turbocharged 4-cylinder engine (in lieu of 6 cylinder): 2008 Acura RDX
  • VTM-4 (Variable Torque Management System “on demand 4WD”): standard on 2008 Acura RDX (with Super Handling), Acura MDX (with Super Handling), Acura RL (with Super Handling) and Honda Ridgeline; optional on Honda Pilot
  • Real Time 4WD (on demand 4WD): optional on 2008 Honda CR-V and Honda Element
  • Smart A/C: 2008 MDX (The air- conditioning system can monitor the cabin conditions and shut of the A/C compressor and turn to partial recirculation mode in order to reduce the load on the engine and improve fuel economy when the HVAC is set to AUTO mode.
  • i-VTEC + VTC (Intelligent Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control + Variable Timing Control): 2008 Honda Civic, Acura RDX, Acura CSX, Acura TSX, Honda Accord (4-cylinder) and Honda CR-V
  • i-VTEC + VCM ( Intelligent Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control + Variable Cylinder Management): 2008 Honda Odyssey, Honda Accord V6 AT and Honda Pilot 2WD
  • VTEC: 2008 Acura TL, Acura RL, Acura MDX, Honda Pilot, Honda S2000 and Honda Ridgeline
  • Variable cylinder management: 2007 Odyssey, Pilot (2WD), Accord hybrid, Civic hybrid
  • DSIf (Dual Spark Plug Ignition): 2007 Civic hybrid
  • Hybrid air-conditioning system: 2007 Accord hybrid and Civic hybrid
  • DBW (Drive by Wire): all 2007 models
  • TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System) – Standard: 2007 Acura TSX, TL, RL, RDX, MDX; 2007 Honda Pilot, Ridgeline, Odyssey, Element and CR-V
  • VTM-4 (Variable Torque Management System “On demand 4WD”) – Standard: 2007 Acura RDX (with Super Handling), Acura MDX (with Super Handling), Acura RL (with Super Handling), Honda Ridgeline. Optional on Honda Pilot
  • Real Time 4WD (“On demand 4WD”) – Optional: 2007 Honda CR-V and Honda Element
  • “Smart A/C”: 2007 MDX (air-conditioning [AC] system can monitor the cabin conditions and shut off the AC compressor and turn to partial re-circulation mode in order to reduce load on the engine and improve fuel economy when the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning [HVAC] system is set to AUTO mode)
  • i-VTEC + VTC (Intelligent Variable Valve Timing & Lift Electronic Control + Variable Timing Control): 2007 Honda Civic, Acura RDX, Acura CSX, Acura TSX, Honda Accord and Honda CR-V
  • i-VTEC + VCM (Intelligent Variable Valve Timing & Lift Electronic Control + Variable Cylinder Management): 2007 Honda Odyssey, Honda Accord Hybrid and Honda Pilot 2WD
  • VTEC: 2007 Acura TL, Acura RL, Acura MDX, Honda Pilot, Honda S2000 and Honda Ridgeline
  • Honda Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system – third generation IMA: 2007 Accord Hybrid and first V6 Hybrid in Canada, launched December 2004
  • Honda Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system – fourth generation IMA: 2007 Civic Hybrid

Hyundai Auto Canada

  • 2009: Continuously Variable Valve Timing: Single on Accent, Elantra, Elantra Touring, 6-cyl Sonata, Azera, 4-cyl Tucson, Santa Fe and Entourage. Dual on 4-cyl Sonata, Genesis and Veracruz.
  • 2009: Electric Power Steering on Elantra, Elantra Touring and 8-cyl Genesis.
  • 2009: 5-speed Automatic Transmission on 2009 Sonata, Azera, 6-cyl Santa Fe and Entourage
  • 2009: 6-speed Automatic Transmission on 2009 Genesis and Veracruz
  • 2009: Aluminum Engine Block on Sonata, Azera, 8-cyl Genesis, 6-cyl Tucson, Santa Fe, Veracruz and Entourage
  • 2009: Variable Intake System on Sonata, Azera, Genesis, Santa Fe, Veracruz and Entourage.
  • 2009: Electronic Throttle on Azera and Genesis
  • Electronic throttle control for improved volumetric efficiency: 2007 Entourage, Veracruz, Azera, Sonata, Santa Fe
  • A 3-step variable intake system that optimizes efficiency at low, middle and high engine speeds: 2007 Entourage, Veracruz, Azera, Sonata, Santa Fe, Tiburon, Tucson
  • Low-resistance intake manifolds: 2007 Accent, Elantra, Tiburon, Sonata, Veracruz, Santa Fe and Tucson
  • Variable backpressure exhaust for improved volumetric efficiency: 2007 Veracruz
  • Open type engine water jackets to improve thermal efficiency: 2007 Entourage, Veracruz, Azera, Sonata, Santa Fe
  • Pulse Width Modulated engine cooling fan control for reduced power draw and improved engine temperature control: 2007 Sonata, Azera, Santa Fe, Entourage, Veracruz
  • Variable Force Solenoid controlled hydraulic pressure on Automatic Transaxles for reduced power loss and reduced fuel consumption: 2007 Elantra, Tiburon, Sonata, Entourage, Veracruz, Santa Fe
  • Redesigned AWD system with variable torque control minimizes torque transfer at high speeds for improved fuel economy (ITCC – Intelligent Torque Controlled Coupling): 2007 Veracruz and Santa Fe
  • 6-speed automatic transaxles: Entourage, Veracruz, Azera
  • All 2007 engines equipped with Continuously Variable Valve Timing.
  • Variable angle air-conditioning compressors for reduced power draw and improved fuel economy: 2007 Accent, Elantra, Tiburon, Sonata, Veracruz, Santa Fe and Tucson
  • Electric motor driven power steering for reduced power draw and improved fuel economy: 2007 Elantra
  • Replacement of “traditional” materials with lighter weight alloys and composites: 2007 Elantra, Tiburon, Sonata, Veracruz, Santa Fe, and Tucson
  • 2007 model year Santa Fe and Entourage: Lightweight all-aluminum engines with variable valve timing

Kia Canada Inc.

  • Continuously Variable Valve Timing (CVVT): improves fuel economy and reduces emissions by controlling valve overlap: all 2008 models (except V6 Sportage)
  • Variable Force Solenoid (VFS): improves fuel economy by eliminating unnecessarily high automatic transmission pump loads while cruising: 2008 Spectra, Magentis, Rondo, Amanti and Sedona
  • Electronic Throttle Control (ETC): improves fuel economy and reduces emissions by computer-controlled throttle blade angle: 2008 Rondo, Magentis, Amanti, Sorento and Rondo
  • Variable Intake System (VIS): increases torque and horsepower at low, middle and high engine speeds: all 2008 V6 engines
  • Graphite-coated piston skirts: improves fuel economy due to reduced friction and reduces NVH upon startup: 2008 Rio, Magentis, Rondo, Amanti, Sorento and Sedona
  • Pulse-width modulated cooling fan controller reduces power draw and improves engine temperature control: 2008 Sedona
  • Dual-stage oil pump: provides the lubrication benefits of a high-volume oil pump at low rpm, but switches to a low-drag oil pump at mid-high rpm to eliminate unnecessary drag, therefore improving fuel economy: 2008 Magentis
  • Variable A/C compressor: improves fuel economy and reduces parasitic power loss by controlling swash plate angle: 2008 Rio, Magentis, Amanti and Spectra
  • Fuel-saving 5-speed automatic transmissions: 2008 Rondo, Magentis, Amanti, Sorento and Sedona
  • Weight reductions: Aluminum engine blocks and heads: 2008 Rio, Spectra, Magentis, Rondo, Amanti, Sorento and Sedona
  • Weight reductions: Aluminum chassis components: 2008 Amanti
  • Weight reductions: Magnesium seat frames: 2008 Amanti
  • CVVT (Continuously Variable Valve Timing): 2007 Magentis, Amanti, Sorento, Rio, Spectra, Sportage (4-cylinder), Sedona and Rondo
  • VFS (Variable Force Solenoid) eliminates unnecessarily high transmission pump loads: 2007 Magentis, Amanti, Sorento and Rondo
  • ETC (Electronic Throttle Control) – computer finely controls throttle blade angle for optimum output and efficiency: 2007 Magentis, Amanti, Sorento and Rondo
  • Bi-directional Fuel Injectors: 2007 Magentis, Amanti, Sorento and Rondo
  • Aluminum engine block and cylinder heads: 2007 Magentis, Amanti, Sorento, Sedona, Sportage and Rondo
  • Independent ignition coils on plugs increases fuel economy by ensuring a more complete burn of the intake charge of air to fuel: 2007 Magentis, Amanti, Sorento, Rio, Spectra, Sportage, Sedona and Rondo
  • PWM (Pulse Width Modulated) cooling fans

Mazda Canada Inc.

  • Direct-injection spark-ignition gasoline engine: 2008 Mazdaspeed3 and CX-7
  • 2008 Mazda5 change to a 5-speed automatic transmission
  • 2008 6-speed automatic transmission: CX-9, RX-8, Mazda6 (3.0 litres), CX-7 and MX-5
  • 2008 6-speed manual transmission: RX-8, Mazdaspeed3 (DISI: 2.3 litres) and MX-5
  • Weight reduction through a combination of lightweight materials and high tensile steel: 2007 RX-8 and MX-5
  • Direct Injection Spark Ignition gasoline engine: 2007 Mazdaspeed3, Mazdaspeed6 and CX-7
  • 2007 MZR 2.3 DISI Turbo engine; direct fuel injection, using an atomized spray delivered directly into the combustion chamber improving fuel consumption and reducing emissions; also available in Mazda 3, 6 and the new CX-7 Crossover vehicle

Mercedes Benz Canada Inc.

  • 2009 M-Class, R-Class and GL-Class: introduced new BlueTEC advanced diesel versions of these models with AdBlue injection. AdBlue injection into the exhaust will transform up to 80% of the Nitrogen oxides into water and nitrogen permitting the BlueTEC vehicles to meet the most stringent emission standards. Advanced diesel engines deliver 20% to 40% less fuel consumption than a comparable gasoline engine.
  • 2009 S-Class and CL-Class: On-demand fuel supply (fuel pump control module). Depending on the fuel demand, the fuel pump is controlled to pump a lower fuel volume, reducing the vehicle's current consumption and fuel consumption.
  • 2009 S-Class and CL-Class: Intelligent battery sensor monitors the vehicle's current consumption while driving and also after the car is parked. If increased or abnormal fuel consumption is detected, unnecessary electrical consumption is reduced to ensure vehicle operation or vehicle start. Offers improved current consumption management and results in improved fuel economy.
  • 2009 CL-Class: New optimized all wheel drive system. Improved fuel economy – 4MATIC consumption 0.2-0.4 l/100 km higher than the rear wheel drive version.
  • 2008 next-generation smart fortwo
  • Alternator with on-demand power generation
  • V6 and V8 engines with electrical 2-disc engine cooling thermostat; engine quickly obtains operating temperature
  • 2008 C-Class: new optimized all wheel drive system to reduce weight and improve fuel economy
  • 2008 C-Class: new electronic 7-speed automatic transmission
  • 2008 C300 flexible fuel vehicle (FFV)
  • 2008 C-Class: friction-reduced differentials and lubrication
  • 2008 C-Class: added use of high-strength steel to reduce weight
  • 2008 C-Class: new fuel supply system with on-demand fuel supply
  • 2007 E320 BLUETEC: advanced diesel technology engine, electronic 7-speed automatic transmission
  • 2007 B-Class: M5 and M6 standard transmissions, CVT transmission, electric-electronically controlled power steering
  • 2007 S & CL-Class: electronic 7-speed automatic transmission
  • 2007 E, C-Class with rear wheel drive, CLK, SLK and SL 550: electronic 7-speed automatic transmission
  • 2007 C230: flexible fuel vehicle (E85) with electronic 7-speed transmission
  • 2007-New M-Class (sport utility vehicle [SUV]) with 7-speed automatic transmission
  • 2007-ML320CDI (SUV), R320CDI (SUV), GL320CDI (SUV): advanced diesel technology engine, electronic 7-speed automatic transmission
  • 2007 GL Class: V8 engine variable valve timing, aluminum block and cylinder heads with low friction silicon-aluminum cylinder liners with secondary internal exhaust gas recirculation
  • 2007 all M-B Models: Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) and variable displacement air-conditioning compressor

Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada Inc.

  • All 2009 Lancer Models: Tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) standard
  • 2009 Lancer: equipped with Mitsubishi Innovative Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control (MIVEC) technology, reduced-weight engine components to improve fuel economy
  • 2009 Lancer: available with fuel-saving CVT transmission (replaces 4-speed automatic)
  • 2009 Outlander: available with new 2.4-litre MIVEC technology equipped 4-cylinder engine with reduced-weight engine components to improve fuel economy and efficiency
  • 2009 Outlander 2.4-litre, 4-cylinder engine with CVT transmission for improved fuel economy
  • Tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) standard on all 2008 Lancer models
  • 2008 Lancer: equipped with Mitsubishi Innovative Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control (MIVEC) technology, reduced-weight engine components to improve fuel economy
  • 2008 Lancer available with fuel-saving CVT transmission (replaces 4-speed automatic)
  • 2008 Outlander available with new 2.4-litre MIVEC (Mitsubishi Innovative Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) technology equipped 4-cylinder engine with reduced-weight engine components to improve fuel economy and efficiency
  • 2008 Outlander 2.4-litre, 4-cylinder engine with CVT transmission for improved fuel economy
  • TPMS (tire pressure monitoring system): 2007 Endeavor, Outlander
  • 6-speed manual and 5-speed automatic transmissions: 2007 Eclipse GT, Eclipse Spyder GT, Outlander
  • Mitsubishi Innovative Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control (MIVEC) technology: 2007 Eclipse 4 cylinder, Lancer Sportback 2.4 L 4 cylinder, Eclipse Spyder 4 cylinder, and Outlander
  • Weight reduction through structural components: aluminum roof panel and aluminum engine block and oil pan: 2007 Outlander

Nissan Canada Inc.

  • Expansion of Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) offering to Versa Sedan, Altima Coupe and Rogue (Small Crossover SUV) in 2008 MY, providing an eight to ten per cent improvement in fuel economy as compared to 4-speed automatics; over sixty-five per cent of the NCI lineup will be offered with a CVT alternative by the end of CY 2007.
  • Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) offerings: 2007 Versa Hatchback, Sentra Sedan, Altima Sedan and Maxima Sedan; improvement in fuel economy versus 4-speed automatics
  • Continuously Variable Transmission offering: 2008 Versa Sedan, Altima Coupe and Rogue (Small Crossover SUV)
  • Introduction of full (two mode) hybrid: 2007 Altima Sedan
  • 5-speed automatic: 2007 Quest 3.5S models
  • Introduction of the new MR18DE and MR20DE engines: 2007 Versa and Sentra lineups. The new engines have a 30% reduction in mechanical friction that allows them to achieve improved thermal efficiency levels. Engine features include super-micro finished cam shaft lobes and bearings; super-micro finished crankshaft and connecting pin; new “fine atomizer” fuel injectors; electronic tumble control valve (in intake system) and double speed oil pump
  • Introduction of an all-new QR25DE engine: 2007 Sentra SE-R and SE-R Spec V models for 2007. The SE-R model is more fuel efficient than its predecessor

Porsche Cars Canada Ltd.

  • 2009: all Carrera models will feature Direct Injection engines
  • 2009: Carreras will offer a semiautomatic dual-clutch gearbox (PDK)
  • Porsche is developing a hybrid electric vehicles, both the Cayenne and upcoming Panamera sedan
  • 2008: all Cayenne models equipped with Direct Fuel Injection (DFI) engine technology
  • 2008: all Cayenne models rated for up to 25% ethanol content of fuel (E25)
  • 2008: all V8 Cayenne models equipped with variable valve timing and variable valve lift (VarioCam Plus)
  • 2007: All sports car engines equipped with variable valve timing and variable valve lift (VarioCam Plus)
  • 2007: 911 Turbo equipped with variable vane geometry turbochargers
  • Hybrid Electric vehicle by Porsche in conjunction with Volkswagen Canada Inc.

Subaru Canada, Inc.

  • Partial Zero Emissions Vehicle (PZEV) introduced to Canadian fleet market; 2008 Outback, Legacy
  • 2008: all Outback 6-cylinder models equipped with SI-Drive (Subaru Intelligent Drive) engine management system allowing 3 levels of engine performance; Intelligent, Sport and Sport Sharp (economy, normal, high performance)
  • 2008: introduces the harmonically balanced 3.6-litre horizontally opposed 6-cylinder engine (H6) on the redesigned Tribeca
  • 2008: dual AVCS (Active Valve Control System) introduced on Tribeca, offering variable valve timing on intake and exhaust for improved drivability, fuel efficiency and reduced emissions
  • 2008: new Tribeca 3.6-litre engine introduces parallel-flow engine cooling system for improved cooling efficiency while providing the use of regular grade (87 octane) fuel for lower operating expenses

Suzuki Canada Inc.

  • 2009 XL7; 6 Speed Automatic
  • 2009 Grand Vitara V6; VVT; low friction Differential
  • 2009 Grand Vitara; new 4 Cyl engine with VVT and Tuned Intake Manifold
  • 2009 Swift+; VVT
  • All 2008 models: electric throttle, improved combustion efficiency
  • 2008 XL7
    • roller rockers, decreased valve train friction
    • variable intake and exhaust valve timing, increased combustion efficiency
    • “beehive”-style valve springs, lower friction/improved valve seating and sealing
    • tuned intake runners, improved combustion efficiency at midrange cruising
  • All 2007 models: electric throttle, improved combustion efficiency
  • 2007 XL-7: roller rockers, decreased valve train friction
  • 2007 XL-7: variable intake and exhaust valve timing, increased combustion efficiency
  • 2007 XL-7: “Beehive” style valve springs, lower friction / improved valve seating and sealing
  • 2007 XL-7: tuned intake runners, improved combustion efficiency at mid-range cruising

Toyota Canada Inc.

  • Hybrid (Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive – Full Series/Parallel System with Continuously Variable Transmission): 2008/2009 Prius, Camry Hybrid, Highlander Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h, GS 450h Hybrid, LS 600hL
  • VVT-I on all 2008/2009 models: optimal valve timing is set to suit the engine conditions in various speed ranges
  • Dual VVT-i: In addition to the intake valve of the VVT-I, the new mechanism also controls the exhaust valve. According to engine rpm and accelerator opening, the computer continually adjusts the timing of the intake and exhaust openings to optimize air-fuel ratio: 2008/2009 Avalon, Camry, Lexus IS 250/350, ES 350, LS 460, GS 350/430; select LDT (2008/2009 RAV4, RX350, Tundra 5.7 litre and Sequoia 5.7 litre)
  • Direct Injection Gas Engine: directly injects highly pressurized fuel into the cylinders, giving comprehensive control of the fuel injection timing, airfuel ratio, throttle valve position, etc. to realize improved efficiency: 2008/2009 Lexus IS F, SC 430, LS 460 and LS 600hL.
  • 5-speed automatics: 2008/2009 Camry 4 cylinder, 2009 Corolla, Matrix all V6/V8 applications
  • 6-speed automatics: 2008/2009 Camry V6, Avalon, Tundra, Sequoia, Lexus IS 250/350, ES 350, SC 430, GS 350 and LX 570
  • 8-speed automatics: 2008/2009 LS 460, GS 460 RWD, IS F
  • Electric power steering: 2009 Corolla, Matrix, 2008/2009 Prius, Yaris Sedan/Hatchback, Camry Hybrid, RAV4, Highlander, Highlander HV, Lexus IS 250/350/F, GS 350/460, RX 400h, LS 460/600hL
  • Flex Lock-up Torque Converters on all 2008/2009 Toyota and Lexus models: To obtain higher efficiencies, flex lock-up torque converters contain an additional clutch-like mechanism to mechanically lock the pump and motor portions together. The segments are locked when the transmission’s computer elements determine that the vehicle is cruising at near constant speed.
  • ECT-I on all 2008/2009 models: facilitates smooth gear change on top of improved response, leading to better fuel economy
  • Super ECT-i: 2008 Yaris Sedan and H/B, RAV4, FJ Cruiser, 4Runner, Tacoma 4WD, Tundra, Sequoia, Avalon, Lexus IS 250/350, ES 350, GS 350/460, SC 460, LS 460, RX 350 and Lexus LX 570
  • Weight reductions: aluminum engine blocks: all 2008/2009 4-cylinder, V6 applications
  • Weight reductions: aluminum body panels: 2008/2009 Prius and Lexus SC 430
  • Electronic throttle control on all 2008/2009 Toyota and Lexus models: The vehicle’s on-board electronic systems are able to control all of the engine’s operation with the exception of incoming air. The use of throttle actuation ensures that the engine will only receive the correct amount of throttle opening for any given situation.
  • Tire Pressure Monitoring System: ?selected 2008/2009 Toyota cars, all trucks and all Lexus products
  • Hybrid (Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive – Full Series/Parallel System): 2007 Prius, 2007 Highlander Hybrid, 2007 Lexus RX 400h, 2007 Camry Hybrid, 2007 GS 450h Hybrid, Upcoming Lexus 2008 LS 600h
  • VVT-I on all 2007 models: optimal valve timing is set to suit the engine conditions in various speed ranges.
  • Dual VVT-i: in addition to the intake valve of the VVT-i, the new mechanism also controls the exhaust valve. According to engine rpm and accelerator opening, the computer continually adjusts the timing of the intake and exhaust openings to optimize air-fuel ratio: 2007 Avalon, Camry, Lexus IS 250/350, ES 350, LS 460, GS350/430; Select LDT (2007 RAV4, RX350)
  • Direct Injection Gas Engine – directly injects highly pressurized fuel into the cylinders. This gives comprehensive control of the fuel injection timing, air-fuel ratio, throttle valve position, etc., to realize improved efficiency: 2007 Lexus IS250/350, GS300, SC430, LS460
  • 5-speed automatics: 2007 Camry 4 cylinder; all V6/V8 applications
  • 6-speed automatics: 2007 Camry V6, Tundra, Lexus IS 250/350, SC430, LS430, GS350/430
  • 8-speed automatics: 2007 LS 460
  • Electric power steering: 2007 Prius, Yaris Sedan/Hatchback, Camry HV, RAV4, Highlander HV, Lexus IS250/350, GS350/430, RX400h, LS 460
  • Flex lock-up torque converters on all 2007 models. To obtain higher efficiencies, flex lock-up torque converters contain an additional clutch-like mechanism to mechanically lock the pump and motor portions together. The segments are locked when the transmission's computer elements determine that the vehicle is cruising at near constant speed
  • ECT-i on all 2007 models: facilitates smooth gear change on top of improved response. This in turn leads to better fuel economy
  • Super ECT-i: 2007 Yaris Sedan and H/B, RAV4, Sequoia, Avalon, Lexus IS 250/350, ES 350, GS 350/430, SC 430, LS 460, RX 350
  • Weight reductions – aluminum engine blocks: all 2007 4-cylinder, V6 applications
  • Weight reductions – aluminum body panels: 2007 Prius and Lexus SC 430
  • Electronic throttle control: the vehicle’s on-board electronic systems are able to control all of the engine’s operation with the exception of incoming air. The use of throttle actuation ensures that the engine will only receive the correct amount of throttle opening for any given situation: 2007 Yaris Sedan, Corolla, Camry, Camry HV, Avalon, FJ Cruiser, Lexus IS 250/350, ES 350, GS 350/430, SC 430, LS 460
  • Tire Pressure Monitoring System: selected 2007 Toyota cars, all trucks and all Lexus products

Volkswagen Canada Inc.

  • 2009 Jetta TDI Clean Diesel introduced in Sedan and Wagon offered with 6-speed manual or 6-speed Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG) dual-clutch automated transmission
  • 2009 Tiguan introduced including new generation 2.0T FSI Direct Injection engine offered with 6-speed manual or 6-speed automatic transmission
  • New generation 2.0T FSI Turbocharged Direct Injection engine introduced in Jetta Sedan, Passat, Eos and GTI offered exclusively with 6-speed manual or 6-speed Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG) dual-clutch automated transmission
  • Tire Pressure Monitoring introduced on Tiguan and Passat CC
  • 2009 A6 3.2 FSI direct injection FrontTrak sedan with multitronic (CVT) transmission introduced
  • 2009 Q7 3.0 TDI Quattro Clean Diesel offered with 6-speed Tiptronic transmission
  • 2009 Q5 3.2 FSI direct injection with 6 speed tiptronic transmission introduced
  • 2009 A4 introduced with new generation 2.0 TFSI direct injection engine with better performance and lower fuel consumption with 6 speed manual or 6 speed automatic transmission
  • 2009 A3 Quattro now available with the 2.0 TFSI turbo direct injection engine
  • 2009 TT Quattro now available with the 2.0 TFSI turbo direct injection engine
  • 2008: Jetta City and Golf City entry-level products with 6-speed automatic transmission
  • 2008: introduction of Audi Valve System (AVS); increased power with lower fuel consumption
  • Direct injection gasoline engines: offered on all 2008 VW and Audi product lines
  • Direct injected gasoline combined with turbocharging: selected 2008 models
  • Diesel available: 2009 Jetta
  • 2008: increased use of 6-speed automatically shifted manual transmissions (DSG technology)
  • 2008: weight reduction through aluminum/steel space-frame design
  • 2008: extensive use of lightweight aluminum and carbon-reinforced materials
  • Direct injection gasoline engines: Offered on all 2007 VW and Audi product lines
  • Direct injected gasoline combined with turbocharging: 2007 GTI, Jetta, Eos, Passat, TT, A3, A4
  • Diesel available: 2007 Touareg and 2008 Jetta
  • 6-speed automatic transmissions: 2007 Passat
  • CVT transmissions: 2007 Audi A4 and A6
  • 6-speed manual transmissions: 2007 Rabbit, Jetta, Beetle, Passat
  • 6-speed automatically shifted manual transmissions: 2007 Audi A3, TT, Jetta, GTI
  • Extensive use of aluminum: 2007 Audi A8, Audi TT, suspension components on other vehicles

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