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The Auto$mart Driver Educator's Newsletter

Spring 2008 Edition – Volume 5

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Table of Contents

Is Auto$mart working? We're going to find out

Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) knows exactly how many Auto$mart Driver Education Kits have been sent to educators across Canada. But we also need to know if the kits are accomplishing their goal.


How many driver educators are using the kit materials to support their teaching?

Are students retaining knowledge about Auto$mart driving techniques?

We are going to find out!

The Auto$mart driver education program was launched more than two years ago. Now the ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program is evaluating the effectiveness of the new approach; exploring barriers to the kit's use; and asking instructors and students what works, what does not and how the program can be improved. Corporate Research Associates Inc. is conducting the evaluation on behalf of NRCan.

“A representative sample of driver educators has been recruited to participate in the study, and we appreciate their involvement and support,” says Charles Crispim, Senior Manager with ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles. “These educators are now being surveyed about their use of the Auto$mart Driver Education Kit materials, both in the classroom and during in-car training.”

Also, many students will be surveyed to determine their level of understanding and retention of Auto$mart messages and concepts. The students will be tested before and after they take their driver training.

The results of the evaluation will be available in mid-2008 and will help NRCan modify the Auto$mart driver education program to better serve you!

Green your fleet

Purchasing a fuel-efficient vehicle means money in your pocket

As a driver educator, you spend a lot of time on the road – and that means you also spend a lot of money refuelling your vehicles. If you are feeling the pinch of rising fuel costs, maybe it is time to reconsider your choice of vehicle.

Fuel is a significant and unavoidable cost of doing business in the driver education industry. It is a deductible expense, but that is no reason to be wasteful. Why use more fuel, and spend more of your hard-earned money, than necessary? Every successful businessperson knows that minimizing expenses is just as important as maximizing revenues.

The difference between the most fuel-efficient and the least fuel-efficient vehicle in any given class can be staggering. Selecting a fuel-efficient vehicle that meets your needs -as opposed to a gas guzzler – could have a huge impact on your bottom line.

Just how much can you save?

Let us assume you use a compact vehicle. The most fuel-efficient vehicle in this class in the 2008 model year will cost you $2,025 per year in fuel, while the tenth best will cost you $3,330 per year in fuel. That is a difference of more than $6,000 over five years!

Estimated annual fuel costs based on 50 000 km/yr
Vehicle class Fuel efficiency
5th best
10th best
Sub-compact 2,835 3,330 3,450
Compact 2,025 3,105 3,330
Mid-size 1,845 3,240 3,375
Full-size 3,600 4,050 4,320

Fuel cost estimates are based on EnerGuide ratings and a fuel price of $0.90 per litre.

There's more involved than saving money!

As part of its plan to protect the environment, the Government of Canada recently announced the new ecoAUTO Rebate program. For information about the program and a list of eligible vehicles, visit the Transport Canada Web site at

Some provincial governments (British Columbia, Manitoba, Ontario, Prince Edward Island and Quebec) also offer incentives for purchasing advanced technology and fuel-efficient vehicles, so you may be eligible for both federal and provincial rebates. Check with your province or dealer to find out if rebates are available.

Purchasing a fuel-efficient vehicle is a wise business decision but it also sets a good example for your students. After all, how many driver educators have not been asked by one inquisitive student or another, “Why did you pick this car?” If you can explain that you made the choice to save fuel and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, your students may start thinking along the same lines when it comes time to purchase their own vehicle.

To learn more, check out the enclosed copy of the Fuel Consumption Guide or visit the Web site at

Information available at your fingertips

Finding fuel consumption information for new vehicles is easy – look for the EnerGuide label attached to all new light-duty vehicles, consult NRCan's Fuel Consumption Guide or visit to compare older vehicles.

Fuel consumption ratings are generated by vehicle manufacturers using standardized testing and analytical procedures approved by Transport Canada. Although actual fuel consumption may vary from these ratings depending on a number of factors (e.g. driving habits and road and weather conditions), the standardized approach to testing makes the ratings an excellent tool for comparing vehicles.

Is a hybrid vehicle the answer?


Chances are you spend a lot more time in the stop-and-go traffic of city driving than on the open highway – that is the nature of the driver education business in most parts of Canada. City driving tends to be where fuel-efficient vehicles – especially hybrids – deliver the biggest benefit.

Hybrid vehicles combine the internal combustion engine and fuel tank of a conventional vehicle with the battery-powered electric motor. This combination gives motorists the driving range and convenient refuelling capabilities of a conventional vehicle, together with the financial and environmental benefits of an electric vehicle.


Happy with her hybrid

Lee Ann Deschamps, a driver educator with Abegweit Driving School Ltd. in Prince Edward Island, stands beside her 2007 Toyota Camry hybrid vehicle. “We use the Auto$mart Driver Education Kit in class to help teach students about the benefits of being a more fuel-efficient driver and I wanted to set a good example, so I bought a hybrid,” Deschamps explains. “I have had so many remarks on my car, mostly from students – they cannot get over how quiet it is. The parents usually ask about fuel consumption and how much it cost to purchase the vehicle. My fuel expenses have been cut in half. I would recommend a hybrid to other driver educators and to anyone who wants to save fuel and help the environment. It was definitely a good buy.”

Hybrids achieve improvements in fuel efficiency by using the electric motor to supplement engine power. Many hybrids can even operate at low speeds using only the electric motor. The batteries for the electric motor do not require plugging in and are recharged by harnessing the energy from the engine, from coasting and braking. Fuel consumption by the internal combustion engine can be reduced by 50 percent or more compared with a gasoline vehicle.

Hybrids are particularly efficient in city driving conditions because this is when the battery power is called on to do some or all of the work. For instance, when most hybrid vehicles are stopped or are waiting at an intersection, they are running only on the electric motor – not on the gas engine. So if most of your driving is around the city, your fuel consumption and costs with a hybrid could be a fraction of what you are now paying.

Most auto manufacturers in the North American market now offer hybrid models. As the market expands, the cost differential between hybrids and conventional vehicles is declining.

Is it starting to sound like a hybrid might be the answer to your needs? For more information about hybrids and other fuel-efficient vehicles, visit

TIRF report suggests young drivers more easily distracted

Canadians are becoming increasingly concerned about distracted driving and strongly support more educational and awareness efforts on the issue, according to a new poll by the Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF).

The Road Safety Monitor is a public opinion survey about key road safety issues that is conducted annually by TIRF. The 2006 survey shows that concern about distracted driving has increased significantly over the past five years.

young driver

In 2001, about 40 percent of Canadians thought distracted driving was a serious problem, compared with almost 70 percent in 2006. More than 95 percent of Canadians believe there is more distracted driving on our roads today than in 2001.

Ward Vanlaar, a research associate for TIRF, notes that distractions, such as eating and drinking, reading maps, operating the car stereo and admiring the landscape, divert the driver's attention and elevate the risk of a collision. Distractions from outside the vehicle posed the biggest threat for drivers. Although only 9.5 percent of drivers had to steer or brake to avoid a collision due to an internal distraction, 20.2 percent had to do so because of a distraction outside the vehicle.

In contrast, the poll also found that young drivers aged 16 to 24 were much more likely than their older peers to have steered or braked to avoid a collision due to an internal distraction. Eighty percent of Canadians agreed that new drivers should be restricted from using cell phones while driving.

“Young drivers need to be especially careful with internal distractions,” says Vanlaar. “Even when they are not distracted, younger drivers have an elevated collision risk – internal distractions can elevate this risk even higher.”

The Road Safety Monitor report on distracted driving is available online at

RSEA annual conference and workshop – “New Ideas! Technology to Pedagogy”

yield sign

New developments in road safety technology, roadway architecture and driver education were showcased at the annual conference and workshop of the Road Safety Educators' Association (RSEA) in Montréal, Quebec, on September 20 and 21, 2007. The 15th annual event attracted driver educators and other interested parties from across Canada and the United States.

The workshop, which offers a continuing education credit for driver educators, included presentations on everything from advanced vehicle safety features to new teaching techniques.

“It was really a very informative day,” notes Sue MacNeil of the RSEA. “We covered a lot of ground, and participants learned a great deal about some of the changes on the horizon that will affect how and what they teach in the classroom and on the road.”

Rules for roundabouts

  • Vehicles entering a roundabout must yield to traffic already in or exiting the roundabout.
  • In multilane roundabouts, drivers must use the inside or outside lane, depending on how they plan to exit the roundabout.
  • Never change lanes while in a roundabout. Select a lane when entering the roundabout and stay in that lane until you exit.
  • Obey posted speed limits.
  • Never pass a truck in a roundabout, because it may need to straddle both lanes.
  • Always give emergency vehicles the right of way. But never stop in the roundabout to allow an emergency vehicle to pass. Always exit the roundabout before you pull over to the side of the road.

Transport Canada officials delivered a presentation on new vehicle safety technologies, including electronic stability control (ESC). ESC helps avoid collisions by enhancing the driver's control to prevent a vehicle from skidding or sliding. When the system detects that a difference may occur between the direction the vehicle is moving and where the driver wants it to go (based on steering), ESC intervenes to correct the problem (i.e. by automatically applying brakes on different wheels). Transport Canada also presented the benefits of anti-lock brakes and winter tires, rather than all-season tires, in winter driving conditions.

MacNeil, who is chief master trainer for the Auto$mart driver education program, delivered presentations on several topics, including the North American trend toward increased use of roundabouts. Roundabouts, which move traffic through intersections without the aid of signals, are proven to increase roadway capacity and improve traffic circulation and safety.

“Studies have also shown that roundabouts can reduce fuel consumption at a single intersection by $1,000 a day,” explains MacNeil. “But their most significant advantage is safety, because they reduce speed. A study in the United States showed that roundabouts can reduce intersection collisions by 37 percent. More jurisdictions in Canada are starting to use roundabouts, which differ from other types of traffic circles. Driver educators need to know how to teach students how to navigate them because different rules apply.”

The Five Deadly Ds of Driving

  • Drinking
  • Drugs
  • Distractions
  • Drowsy
  • Dangerous

MacNeil also delivered a presentation on the “Five Deadly Ds of Driving” (Drinking, Drugs, Distractions, Drowsy and Dangerous driving).

Matthew Rankin, representing NRCan's ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program, accepted a certificate from the RSEA acknowledging the program's contributions to road safety.

For more information about RSEA, visit

Truckers do it too – ecoENERGY for Fleets

Instilling safe, fuel-efficient driving habits into the next generation of Canadian motorists is a key goal of NRCan's ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program – and by using the Auto$mart Driver Education Kit, driver educators across Canada are helping to get the job done. But you should know that NRCan is not targeting novice drivers alone – it is reaching out to commercial operators as well!

NRCan's ecoENERGY for Fleets program offers free, practical advice on how energy-efficient vehicles and business practices can reduce a fleet's operating costs, improve productivity and increase competitiveness. Services include the well-known and industry-respected SmartDriver training, as well as fuel management workshops, a regular newsletter for participants, Web-based tools and information resources.

“Our efforts are directed at on-road commercial and institutional fleet operators,” explains Diane Loucks, Program Officer for ecoENERGY for Fleets. “We have developed specific training for highway and forestry trucking and for motor coach and school bus operators.”

ecoENERGY for Fleets recently introduced another component to its SmartDriver training – SmartDriver in the City. Targeted at fleets that operate in urban areas (within a 100-kilometre [km] radius of the urban core), the training sessions can be adjusted to the trainee's schedule. SmartDriver for School Bus training covers factors that affect fuel efficiency and provides information about preventive maintenance and reducing idling time. It also offers tips on how to share the road with others.

Does your training school operate a fleet of vehicles?

Does your staff need training?

If the answers are yes, why not register with ecoENERGY for Fleets? It's free!

Check out the Web site at or e-mail for more information.

New Brunswick Lung Association and NRCan team up to deliver a SIMPLE but important message

Sometimes, the simple messages are the most important ones. This was certainly the case with a recent pilot project delivered by the New Brunswick Lung Association with support from NRCan.

The SIMPLE Driver Stewardship Program was designed to educate New Brunswick youth about how good driving habits and vehicle maintenance can help the environment and human health. SIMPLE is an acronym for six key driving behaviours that can help increase fuel efficiency, reduce vehicle emissions and save money.


The New Brunswick Lung Association initiated the project as part of its mandate to promote clean air, respiratory health and the prevention of lung disease. Thousands of Canadians die prematurely each year from the effects of air pollution, which is caused in part by toxic chemicals in vehicle exhaust emissions.

“The pilot project was geared towards high-school students but was also delivered to some middle-school students in grades six to eight,” explains Arthur Thomson, Director of Program Development at the New Brunswick Lung Association. “We were trying to reach youth at an age when they may be relatively new drivers or thinking about learning to drive soon and before they have developed any bad habits.”

Presentations were made to environmental clubs, environmental science classes and others at five New Brunswick high schools and one middle school.

“We were trying to convey how the actions in the SIMPLE program can improve fuel efficiency, which in turn improves outdoor air quality and helps fight climate change,” says Thomson. “We also emphasized that poor driving habits make driving more expensive.”

“For example, fuel consumption increases exponentially when travelling at speeds over 90 km/hour. We thought this was an important message for this audience, because it does not typically have a lot of money to waste.”

After the presentation, students were asked to make a pledge to adopt at least one of the six SIMPLE actions. They were also encouraged to take the SIMPLE message to their peers.

SIMPLE stands for

  • Speed limit
  • Idling
  • Match vehicle to need
  • tire Pressure
  • Leave your car at home
  • Engine tune-up

“Some students set up booths and others went into classrooms, including driver education classes at their school,” says Thomson. “At the end of their presentations, they also asked students to make pledges.”

About 1000 students received the presentations, 300 of whom signed pledge forms. The New Brunswick Lung Association later contacted those 300 students to see whether they were fulfilling their commitments.

“The pilot project was a great success, and we have plans to continue the program,” says Thomson. “This year, we are looking to have schools identify a couple of students who will be given a day or two of in-depth training so they can go back and deliver the presentation on their own, either in their schools, in the community or both.”

For more information about the SIMPLE Driver Stewardship Program, contact Arthur Thomson at 506-455-8961 or

Don't be stumped by a student!

The average light-duty vehicle produces about 2.4 kilograms (kg) of carbon dioxide (CO2) – the principal greenhouse gas contributing to climate change – from every litre of gasoline used and 2.7 kg of CO2 from every litre of diesel. It is a simple scientific fact, but chances are some science whiz kid in one of your classes is going to know that a litre of gasoline or diesel weighs only 0.76 kg – so how could it possibly produce more than three times its weight in carbon dioxide?

To avoid being stumped by a student, you probably want to understand some of the basic chemistry of fossil fuel combustion.

The first thing to know is that gasoline requires a lot of oxygen for combustion. Internal combustion engines get this oxygen from air. Air is only one-fifth oxygen, so burning a single litre of gasoline or diesel fuel uses about 8000 litres of air, which weigh about 12 kg.

During combustion, carbon from the gasoline or diesel fuel combines with oxygen to form a separate chemical compound – carbon dioxide. As its name indicates, CO2 is one part carbon and two parts oxygen. Because of the large quantity of air required to burn gasoline and diesel fuel, and because gasoline and diesel contain large amounts of carbon, large quantities of CO2 are produced.

That is the short answer. A more detailed explanation is available in the Auto$mart Instructor's Guide. But the important thing for students to remember is that when they use less fuel, they produce less CO2 – and that slows the pace of climate change.

European study confirms benefits of “eco-driving” training

The verdict is in! A study funded by the European Commission has confirmed what Auto$mart has been saying for years: driver training in fuel-efficient practices – known in Europe as "eco-driving" – has a role to play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving fuel efficiency.

“Incorporation of eco-driving in the training of new drivers is already applied in several countries and is absolutely cost effective,” notes the study, which was undertaken to evaluate strategies to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles across Europe. The study concluded that, depending on their driving style, drivers can reduce fuel consumption by between 5 percent and 25 percent immediately after having received instructions or lessons.

Authored by TNO Science and Industry in cooperation with the Institute for European Environmental Policy and the Aristotle University of Technology, the study report provides a detailed “review and analysis of the reduction potential and costs of technological and other measures to reduce CO2 emissions from passenger cars.”

Among the options considered were technical measures to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, the retrofitting of low-rolling-resistance tires, tire-pressure monitoring systems, the use of natural gas for vehicles and bio-fuels, and eco-driving training. The study found that fuel-efficient driving, based on lessons, is a cost-effective means of achieving a reduction of CO2 emissions from the European passenger car fleet.

“This is an important study because it supports everything we have been saying about the benefits of training young drivers in safe, fuel-efficient practices,” says Charles Crispim, Senior Manager with the ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program. “Driving with fuel efficiency in mind is good for the environment, and Canada is not the only country that recognizes the benefits of programs like Auto$mart that reduce fuel consumption.”

Too many Canadians drive aggressively: TIRF report

A new poll by the Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF) has confirmed what driver educators see on the road every day: many motorists drive too aggressively. As well, Canadians think the problem is increasing.

The TIRF poll found that about 2.7 million Canadians admitted to frequently driving well over the speed limit. Another 2 million regularly speed up to get through red lights. Both behaviours run counter to the safe and fuel-efficient driving techniques taught in driver education classes across Canada, often with the help of materials from the Auto$mart Driver Education Kit.

“Aggressive driving is a broad issue that includes behaviours such as excessive speeding, running red lights, honking the horn, taking risks for fun while driving and, in the extreme, physical violence,” says Ward Vanlaar, a research associate for TIRF. “Aggressive drivers may not intend to harm others, but their behaviour elevates everybody's crash risk. Speeding, taking risks and running red lights are all extremely dangerous.”

Close to 90 percent of Canadians believe that aggressive driving is more common today than it was five years ago.

TIRF findings of particular note for driver educators include the following:

  • Over 670 000 Canadians said they like to take risks while driving “just for the fun of it.”
  • Twice as many aggressive drivers were male.
  • Young drivers aged 16 to 24 were more likely to honk their horn at another driver.
  • Drivers aged 16 to 44 were more likely to behave aggressively in traffic.
  • Drivers who were the most aggressive had the highest number of traffic citations.

“These results appear to be telling us that driver education is more important today than ever,” says Charles Crispim, Senior Manager with the ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program. “Driver educators need to continue to focus on safe driving, especially when training novice drivers. One way to instil good, lifelong driving habits is to remind students that driving aggressively is not only extremely dangerous, but also wastes fuel and causes unnecessary damage to the environment.”

The poll results are drawn from the Road Safety Monitor, an annual public opinion survey by TIRF on key road safety issues. For more information, visit the TIRF Web site at

Back to top.

In the D.E.N. with Ben Estrada

Ben Estrada

While driving recently on a 400-series highway to teach a course for experienced drivers, I noticed an electronic sign on the side of the road. Its message was clear: “KEEP A SAFE DISTANCE BETWEEN YOU AND THE VEHICLE AHEAD.” But a quick look around told me that most drivers were following the vehicle in front too closely, and most were also travelling over the speed limit. Did they miss the sign, I wondered, or do they not understand what is considered a safe distance?

So the first question I asked my class that day was “What is a safe distance between you and the vehicle ahead?” Several people answered three to four car lengths, and some said it depends on the speed you are travelling. Every answer I received was wrong, which reminded me once again of the important role driver educators play in educating the public.

Let's talk about stopping distance

Brakes are an important part of the vehicle – after all, who would drive a car without them! But brakes are only one factor involved in bringing your car to a stop. Three other factors are also important:

  • tires – their material, design and condition. As we teach in our driver education classes, good tire pressure not only provides proper balance, traction and control for the vehicle, but also saves fuel and maximizes the life of the tire.
  • pavement – its type, condition and surface covering. When trying to bring a vehicle to a stop, there is a big difference between an icy surface with only 5 percent friction and a dry surface with 70 percent to 80 percent friction.
  • most important – the driver's perception time, reaction time and braking skills. The driver needs to know that following too closely is unsafe and increases fuel consumption because it forces the driver to do hard braking, which is usually followed by quick acceleration.

What is the recommended distance between you and the vehicle ahead?

Under ideal circumstances – dry pavement, with brakes and tires in good condition and an alert driver behind the wheel – a minimum of three seconds' travelling distance is needed to safely stop a light-duty vehicle.

Next time you read a sign about road safety where specific information is not given, remember that public education is part of your job. In fact, it is what makes your job so important.

Ben Estrada is an Auto$mart Master Trainer with Brisa Driving School Inc.

Update on the five-phase fuel efficiency strategy

NRCan's ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program uses a five-step strategy to promote safe, fuel-efficient driving, and it is working closely with provincial and territorial governments to implement this strategy.

See the following table for an update on the progress in each jurisdiction.

Province / Territory Phase I

Include fuel efficiency messages in handbooks for new drivers.
Phase II

Include questions about fuel efficiency on exams for new drivers.
Phase III

Add a mandatory component on fuel efficiency to their driver training curriculum.
Phase IV

Make other Office of Energy Efficiency materials available to the public through licensing bureaus.
Phase V

Provide a link from their driver training and licensing Web sites to the Auto$mart Web site.
Alberta X X X    
British Columbia X   X X X
Manitoba X X X X X
New Brunswick X        
Newfoundland and Labrador X X   X X
Nova Scotia X   X   X
Ontario X       X
Prince Edward Island X X   X X
Quebec   X     X
Saskatchewan X   X   X
Northwest Territories X     X  
Yukon Territory X     X X

Planning underway for NRCan initiative to tackle aggressive driving styles

NRCan is in the planning stages for an initiative that will tackle the problem of aggressive driving – a practice that not only endangers lives but also wastes fuel and generates unnecessary pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.

Aggressive driving styles, such as speeding, hard acceleration and frequent braking, can increase a vehicle's fuel consumption by up to 39 percent and emission levels by even more. And the problem appears to be widespread: recent studies suggest that 66 percent of motorists in Canada have a tendency to drive aggressively (see the article on page 9).

NRCan aims to raise awareness of the impacts of aggressive driving on road safety, fuel consumption and the environment. As in the Auto$mart Driver Education Kit, the new initiative will inform motorists that non-aggressive, cooperative driving can help save lives, money and the environment.

“The ultimate goal will be to change people's behaviour – to get them to drive less aggressively so they use less fuel and produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions,” notes Ann Charboneau, Program Officer with the ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program. “This is a logical extension of some of the other public information campaigns NRCan is already involved with to encourage motorists to reduce idling and check tire pressure.”

After the current planning stage of the project, program tools will be developed and tested in 2008-2009. NRCan will also seek stakeholder groups to partner with to help educate drivers about the safety, financial and environmental pitfalls of aggressive driving styles. The initiative is due to start in 2009-2010.

New funding available to promote fuel efficiency

Do you have a great idea to improve fuel efficiency and are you looking for a contribution to your project? NRCan's ecoENERGY for Personal Vehicles program is developing an improved way to apply for project funding.

NRCan recognizes that environmental issues are now firmly on Canadians' minds, especially climate change and air pollution.

Funding process

NRCan will be asking for project proposals to help Canadian drivers change their behaviours when buying, driving and maintaining their cars, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve air quality. NRCan completed the first round in the fall of 2007 and expects to launch a second round in the fall of 2008. Examples of possible projects include the following:

  • building on NRCan's Auto$mart driver education program to reach more drivers and driving instructors
  • building on NRCan's national Idle-Free initiative to encourage idling reduction among Canadians (
  • building on the national Be Tire Smart – Play our PART campaign that encourages proper tire maintenance (

Who can apply? The funding is open to all non-governmental organizations, community groups and associations, educational and academic institutions, and provincial/territorial and municipal agencies, just to name a few. The proposals submitted should target behaviour change that will provide measurable results.

“We are hoping to hear from all kinds of groups, including those who have not previously approached NRCan for funding,” says Beverley Monnette of NRCan.

For more information about proposal submissions and evaluation criteria, visit

We need your feedback about the D.E.N.

This is our fifth volume of The Auto$mart D.E.N. driver educator's newsletter. We hope this publication has given you some interesting insight into what is going on in driver education, from your driveway to across the country.

Now, we need your feedback to ensure that The Auto$mart D.E.N. continues to be beneficial and of interest. Contact Matthew Rankin at to let us know what you like, what you think could be improved or what you would like to see added to the D.E.N..

Natural Resources Canada's Office of Energy Efficiency

Leading Canadians to Energy Efficiency at Home, at Work and on the Road

Aussi disponible en français sous le titre :
Le repère de l’instructeur – Édition printemps 2008 Volume 5

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, 2008

Inventory No. M27-01-2440E
ISSN 1911-4591 (Print)
ISSN 1911-4605 (On-line)
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