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National Renewable Diesel Demonstration Initiative

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Report on the Technical Feasibility of Integrating an Annual Average 2% Renewable Diesel in the Canadian Distillate Pool by 2011

Glossary of Terms

Additive: Material added in small amounts to finished fuel products to improve certain properties or characteristics.

Antioxidant: Substance that inhibits reactions promoted by oxygen.

ASTM: Standards from ASTM International.

Base fuel: The fuel before renewable diesel is added.

Biodegradable: Capable of being broken down by the action of micro-organisms.

Biodiesel: Methyl esters of fatty acids meeting the requirements of ASTM specification D6751.

B100: 100% fatty acid methyl ester.

Bxx: Finished blends of biodiesel with ultra-low sulphur diesel, where xx refers to the percentage of biodiesel in the blend.

Cetane number: A measure of the ignition quality of diesel fuel based on ignition delay in an engine. The higher the cetane number, the shorter the ignition delay and the better the ignition quality.

Cloud point: The temperature at which a sample of a fuel just shows a cloud or haze of wax (or in the case of biodiesel, methyl ester) crystals when it is cooled under standard test conditions, as defined in ASTM D2500 (see Appendix 1).

CME: Canola methyl ester.

CSFT: Cold soak filtration test (see Appendix 1).

EN: European standards.

Energy content: The heat produced on combustion of a specified volume or mass of fuel; also known as heating value or heat of combustion.

FAME: Fatty acid methyl esters. A mono alkyl ester of long-chain fatty acids from naturally occurring plant oils, animal fats, and recycled greases.

Fatty acid: Any of the saturated or unsaturated monocarboxylic acids that occur naturally in the form of triglycerides (or mono or diglycerides) or as free fatty acids in fats and fatty oils.

Flash point: The lowest temperature at which vapours from a fuel will ignite when a small flame is applied under standard test conditions.

FBT: Filter blocking tendency (see Appendix 1).

HC: Hydrocarbon, a compound composed of hydrogen and carbon. Hydrocarbons can refer to fuel components and to unburned or poorly combusted components in vehicle exhaust.

HDRD: Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel.

Kerosene: A high value petroleum distillate with superior low temperature operability properties.

Lubricity: The ability of a fuel to lubricate.

Microbial contamination: Containing deposits or suspended matter formed by microbial degradation of the fuel.

Neat biodiesel: 100% biodiesel.

Oxidation: Loosely, the chemical combination of oxygen to a molecule.

Oxidative stability: The ability of a fuel to resist oxidation during storage or use.

Pour point: The lowest temperature at which a fuel will just flow when tested under standard conditions, as defined in ASTM D97 (see Appendix 1).

Renewable diesel: An umbrella term referring to any sort of diesel fuel from a renewable source.

Saturation or saturated compound: A paraffinic hydrocarbon or fatty acid, i.e. one with only single bonds and no double or triple bonds.

SME: Soy methyl ester.

SMG: Saturated monoglycerides, a type of naturally occurring impurity found in most biodiesel, which can form precipitates.

Solvent: A liquid capable of dissolving another substance to form a solution, which is a homogeneous mixture, composed of two or more substances.

Splash blending: The fuels to be blended are delivered separately into a tank truck.

Storage stability: The ability of a fuel to resist deterioration due to oxidation during storage.

TME: Tallow methyl ester.

ULSD: Ultra low sulphur diesel.

ULSK: Ultra low sulphur kerosene.

Viscosity: A measure of the resistance to flow of a liquid.