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Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada, 1990 to 2009

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Appendix B: Glossary of Terms

Activity: This term characterizes major drivers of energy use in a sector (e.g. floor space area in the commercial/institutional sector).

Agriculture sector: The agriculture sector includes all types of farms, including livestock, field crops, grain and oilseed farms, as well as activities related to hunting and trapping. Energy used in this sector is for farm production and includes energy use by establishments engaged in agricultural activities and in providing services to agriculture. Agriculture energy use is included in total secondary energy use for Canada.

Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE): The AFUE refers to the amount of energy supplied to a natural gas or oil furnace compared with the amount of energy delivered to the home in the form of heat. For example, a furnace that has a 90 percent AFUE will lose 10 percent of the energy it is supplied (conversion loss) and will deliver 90 percent of the energy supplied in the form of heat to the dwelling.

Appliance: This term is for energy-consuming equipment used in the home for purposes other than air conditioning, centralized water heating and lighting. Appliances include cooking appliances (gas stoves and ovens, electric stoves and ovens, and microwave ovens) as well as refrigerators, freezers, clothes washers and dishwashers. Other appliances include devices such as televisions, video cassette recorders, digital video disc players, radios, computers and set top boxes.

Auxiliary equipment: With the exception of auxiliary motors (see Auxiliary motors), auxiliary equipment includes stand-alone equipment powered directly from an electrical outlet, such as computers, photocopiers, refrigerators and desktop lamps. It also includes equipment that can be powered by natural gas, propane or other fuels, such as clothes dryers and cooking appliances.

Auxiliary motors: This term refers to devices used to transform electric power into mechanical energy to provide a service, such as pumps, ventilators, compressors and conveyors.

Biomass: Biomass includes wood waste and pulping liquor. Wood waste is a fuel consisting of bark, shavings, sawdust and low-grade lumber and lumber rejects from the operation of pulp mills, sawmills and plywood mills. Pulping liquor is a substance that consists of primarily lignin and other wood constituents and chemicals that are by-products of the manufacture of chemical pulp. It can produce steam for industrial processes when it is burned in a boiler or produce electricity through thermal generation.

Bitumen: Bitumen is a dense type of petroleum that is often mixed with sand, clay and water in its natural state. Because it is too thick to flow, it is not usually recoverable at commercial rates through a well (see Oil sands, Unconventional crude oil).

Capacity utilization rate: The rate of capacity use is a measure of the intensity with which industries use their production capacity. The rate is the ratio of an industry’s actual output to its estimated potential output.

Carbon dioxide (CO2): This compound of carbon and oxygen is formed when carbon is burned. Carbon dioxide is a colourless gas that absorbs infrared radiation, mostly at wavelengths between 12 and 18 microns. It behaves as a one-way filter, allowing incoming, visible light to pass through in one direction, while preventing outgoing infrared radiation from passing in the opposite direction. The one-way filtering effect of carbon dioxide causes an excess of the infrared radiation to be trapped in the atmosphere; thus it acts as a “greenhouse” and has the potential to increase the surface temperature of the planet (see Greenhouse gas).

Commercial/institutional sector: The commercial/institutional sector in Canada includes activities related to trade, finance, real estate, public administration, educational and commercial services (including tourism). These activities have been grouped into 10 activity types based on the North American Industry Classification System. Although street lighting is included in total energy use for the sector, it is excluded from the factorization analysis because it is not associated with floor space activity.

Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also known as compact fluorescent light bulb: A compact fluorescent bulb is a smaller version of a fluorescent lamp. These bulbs use 67 to 75 percent less energy but provide comparable lighting to that which is supplied by an incandescent bulb.

Conventional crude oil: This is a liquid form of petroleum that can be economically produced through a well by using normal production practices and without further processing or dilution.

Cooling degree-day (CDD): The cooling degree-day is a measure of how hot a location was over a period, relative to a base temperature. In this report, the base temperature is 18°C, and the period is one year. If the daily average temperature exceeds the base temperature, the number of cooling degree-days for that day is the difference between the two temperatures. However, if the daily average is equal to or less than the base temperature, the number of cooling degree-days for that day is zero. The number of cooling degree-days for a longer period is the sum of the daily cooling degree-days for the days in that period.

Dwelling: A dwelling is a structurally separate set of living premises with a private entrance from outside the building or from a common hallway or stairway inside. A private dwelling is one in which one person, a family or other small group of individuals may reside, such as a single house or apartment.

End-use: An end-use is any specific activity that requires energy (e.g. lighting, space heating, water heating and manufacturing processes).

Energy efficiency: This term refers to how effectively energy is being used for a particular purpose. For example, providing a similar (or better) level of service with less energy consumption on a per unit basis is considered an improvement in energy efficiency.

Energy intensity: Energy intensity is the amount of energy use per unit of activity. Examples of activity measures in this publication are households, floor space, passenger-kilometres, tonne-kilometres, physical units of production and constant dollar value of gross domestic product (also see Activity).

Energy source: This term refers to any substance that supplies heat or power (e.g. petroleum, natural gas, coal, renewable energy and electricity).

Factorization method: This statistical method – based on the Log-Mean Divisia Index I (LMDI I) approach – is used in this publication to separate changes in energy use into five factors: activity, structure, weather, service level and energy efficiency.

Floor space (area): Floor space is the area enclosed by exterior walls of a building. In the residential sector, it excludes parking areas, basements or other floors below ground level; these areas are included in the commercial/institutional sector. It is measured in square metres.

Freight transportation: This subsector of the transportation sector includes the energy used by transportation modes that transport freight and whose activity is measured in tonne-kilometres. These modes include trucking, rail, marine and air.

Gigajoule (GJ): One gigajoule equals 1 × 109 joules. (see Petajoule).

Greenhouse gas (GHG): A greenhouse gas absorbs and radiates heat in the lower atmosphere that otherwise would be lost in space. The greenhouse effect is essential for life on this planet because it keeps average global temperatures high enough to support plant and animal growth. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrous oxide (N2O). The most abundant greenhouse gas is CO2, accounting for approximately 70 percent of total GHG emissions (see Carbon dioxide, Methane).

Gross domestic product (GDP): This measure is the total value of goods and services produced within Canada during a given year. It is also referred to as annual economic output or, more simply, output. To avoid counting the same output more than once, GDP includes only final goods and services – not those that are used to make another product. GDP figures are reported in constant 2002 dollars

Gross output (GO): The GO is the total value of goods and services produced by an industry. It is the sum of the industry’s shipments plus the change in value due to labour and capital investment. Gross output figures are reported in constant 2002 dollars.

Heating degree-day (HDD): The HDD is a measure of how cold a location was over a period, relative to a base temperature. In this publication, the base temperature is 18°C and the period is one year. If the daily average temperature is below the base temperature, the number of heating degree-days for that day is the difference between the two temperatures. However, if the daily average temperature is equal to or higher than the base temperature, the number of heating degree-days for that day is zero. The number of heating degree-days for a longer period is the sum of the daily heating degree-days for the days in that period.

Heating degree-day index: This index is a measure of how relatively cold (or hot) a winter was when compared with the heating degree-day (HDD) average. When the HDD index is above (below) 1, the observed temperature is colder (warmer) than normal. The HDD normal represents a weighted average of the 1951 to 1980 HDDs observed in a number of weather stations across Canada.

Heavy truck: A heavy truck has a gross vehicle weight that is more than, or equal to, 14 970 kilograms (kg) (33 001 pounds [lb.]). The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.

High-efficiency heating system: This classification indicates the efficiency of natural gas and oil furnaces. The high-efficiency classification refers to a heating system that has average annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of 90 percent or higher.

Household: A household is a person or a group of people occupying one dwelling unit. The number of households will, therefore, be equal to the number of occupied dwellings.

Industrial sector: The Canadian industrial sector includes all manufacturing industries, all mining activities, forestry and construction.

Joule (J): A joule is the international unit of measure for energy – the energy produced by the power of one watt flowing for a second. There are 3.6 million joules in one kilowatt hour (see Kilowatt hour).

Just-in-time inventory: This inventory system limits the required warehouse space by having orders arrive at the company only as they are required.

Kilowatt hour (kWh): This measurement is equivalent to 1000 watt hours. A kilowatt hour is the amount of electricity consumed by ten 100-watt bulbs burning for an hour. One kilowatt hour equals 3.6 million joules (see Watt).

Light truck: A light truck has a gross vehicle weight of up to 3,855 kg (8,500 lb.). The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight. This class of vehicles includes pickup trucks, minivans and sport utility vehicles.

Light-duty vehicle (LDV): This segment of passenger transportation vehicles includes small cars, large cars, motorcycles and light trucks.

Lighting: The use of energy to light the interior and exterior of a dwelling.

Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) and gas plant natural gas liquids (NGL): Propane and butane are liquefied gases extracted from natural gas (i.e. gas plant NGL) or from refined petroleum products (i.e. LPG) at the processing plant.

Medium-efficiency heating system: This classification indicates the efficiency of natural gas and oil furnaces. The medium-efficiency classification refers to a heating system with an average annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) between 78 and 89 per cent.

Medium truck: A medium truck has a gross vehicle weight ranging from 3,856 to 14,969 kg (8,501 to 33,000 lb.). The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.

Megajoule (MJ): One megajoule equals 1 × 106 joules (see Joule).

Methane (CH4):Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, as the release of one tonne of methane has the same GHG impact as 21 t of carbon dioxide. It has an energy content of 20.3 MJ/mm³ (see Greenhouse gas).

Minimum energy performance standards: These standards are established to ensure a minimum standard for appliances across Canada and ensure environmental concerns are met through reduced energy consumption and therefore reduced emissions.

Mobile home: A moveable dwelling designed and constructed to be transported by road on its own chassis to a site and placed on a temporary foundation (such as blocks, posts or a prepared pad). If required, it can be moved to a new location.

Normal-efficiency heating system: This classification indicates the efficiency of natural gas and oil furnaces. The normal efficiency classification refers to a heating system with an average annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) of less than 78 percent.

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS): This classification system categorizes establishments into groups with similar economic activities. The structure of NAICS, adopted by Statistics Canada in 1997 to replace the 1980 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), was developed by the statistical agencies of Canada, Mexico and the United States.

Occupied dwelling: An occupied dwelling acts as a residence for a household, where the number of households will equal the number of occupied dwellings. Occupied dwellings may be occupied on a full-time or part-time basis.

Off-road transportation: Off-road transportation is a subsector of the transportation sector, which includes the energy used by off-road vehicles. These vehicles include items such as lawnmowers, snowmobiles and all-terrain vehicles. Due to limitations in available data, this subsector is not analysed in detail.

Oil sands: The oil sands are a deposit of sand and other rock material saturated with bitumen, a type of crude oil (see Bitumen, Unconventional crude oil).

Passenger transportation: This subsector of the transportation sector includes the energy used by transportation modes that transport passengers and whose activity is measured in passenger-kilometres. These modes include light-duty vehicles, buses and urban transit, passenger rail and passenger aviation.

Passenger-kilometre (Pkm): This is an activity measure in the passenger transportation subsector that describes the transportation of one passenger across a distance of one kilometre.

Petajoule (PJ): One petajoule equals 1 × 1015 joules (see Joule).

Pulping liquor: This substance consists primarily of lignin, other wood constituents and chemicals that are by-products of the manufacture of chemical pulp. It can produce steam for industrial processes when burned in a boiler and/or produce electricity through thermal generation.

Residential sector: The residential sector in Canada includes four major types of dwellings: single detached homes, single attached homes, apartments and mobile homes. Households use energy primarily for space and water heating, the operation of appliances, lighting and space cooling.

Sector: A sector is the broadest category for which energy consumption and intensity are considered within the Canadian economy (e.g. residential, commercial/institutional, industrial, transportation, agriculture and electricity generation).

Service level: This term characterizes the increased penetration of auxiliary equipment in commercial/institutional buildings and the increased penetration of appliances and space cooling units in residential dwellings.

Single attached (dwelling): Each half of a semi-detached (double) house and each section of a row or terrace are defined as single attached dwellings. A single dwelling attached to a non-residential structure also belongs to this category.

Single detached (dwelling): This type of dwelling is commonly called a single house (i.e. a house containing one dwelling unit and completely separated on all sides from any other building or structure).

Space cooling: This term refers to the conditioning of room air for human comfort by a refrigeration unit (e.g. air conditioner or heat pump) or by the circulation of chilled water through a central- or district-cooling system.

Space heating: This term refers to the use of mechanical equipment to heat all or part of a building and includes the principal space heating system and any supplementary equipment.

Structure: Structure refers to change in the makeup of each sector. For example, in the industrial sector, a relative increase in output from one industry compared with another is considered a structural change; in the electricity generation sector, a relative increase in production from one fuel process compared with another is considered a structural change.

Synthetic crude oil (SCO): This term refers to a mixture of hydrocarbons, similar to light crude oil, derived by upgrading bitumen from oil sands or conventional heavy crude oil.

Terajoule (TJ): One terajoule equals 1 × 1012 joules (see Joule).

Thermal envelope: Described as the shell of a dwelling, the thermal envelope protects the dwelling from the elements. The envelope consists of the basement walls and floor, the above-grade walls, the roof, and the windows and doors. To maintain the indoor environment, the envelope must control the flow of heat, air and moisture between the inside and the outside of the dwelling.

Tonne-kilometre (Tkm): This term is an activity measure in the freight transportation subsector describing the transportation of one tonne across a distance of one kilometre.

Transportation sector: The transportation sector in Canada includes all modes of transportation required for the movement of passengers or freight. These modes include road, air, rail and marine transport. The transportation sector is divided into three subsectors: passenger, freight and off-road; however, only the passenger and freight subsectors are analysed in detail.

Unconventional crude oil: This term is for crude oil that is not classified as conventional crude oil (e.g. bitumen) (see Bitumen, Oil sands).

Upstream mining: The companies that explore, develop and produce Canada’s petroleum resources are known as the upstream sector of the petroleum industry.

Waste fuel: This name is applied to any number of energy sources other than conventional fuels used in the cement industry. It includes materials such as tires, municipal waste and landfill off-gases.

Water heater: This term refers to an automatically controlled vessel designed for heating water and storing heated water.

Water heating: This term refers to the use of energy to heat water for hot running water, as well as the use of energy to heat water on stoves and in auxiliary water heating equipment for bathing, cleaning and other non-cooking applications.

Watt (W): A watt is a unit of power equal to one joule of energy per second. For example, a 40-watt light bulb uses 40 watts of electricity (see Kilowatt hour).

Wood waste: This term refers to a fuel that consists of bark, shavings, sawdust, low-grade lumber and lumber rejects from the operation of pulp mills, sawmills and plywood mills.

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