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Industrial Consumption of Energy (ICE) Survey – Summary Report of Energy Use in the Canadian Manufacturing Sector, 1995-2005 – March 2008

This is an archived version of this report. Please refer to the latest version of the
Summary Report of Energy Use in the Canadian Manufacturing Sector, 1995-2008.




4. Manufacturing energy consumption (ICE data)

The Industrial Consumption of Energy (ICE) survey collects energy use data from establishments that have a North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code of between 311000 and 339000. These establishments, which comprise the Manufacturing sector, according to this summary report, primarily transform materials or substances into new products.

The energy consumption for the entire Manufacturing sector, consume the most significant portion of the total energy as estimated by the ICE survey, is presented in Section 4.1. are presented next, followed by energy consumption data The energy consumption data of the six subsectors that for the remaining subsectors.

4.1 Total energy consumption of the Manufacturing sector

Overview of the Manufacturing sector in Canada

With a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of $175 billion,12 the activities of the Canadian Manufacturing sector accounted for 16% of the GDP of the Canadian economy in 2005.v

In 2004, there were 1.75 million employees in the Manufacturing sector, of whom 76% were production workers.vi

In 2005, 84% of the exports of the Manufacturing sector were destined for the United States. The next three most significant importers were Japan, the United Kingdom and China, with 2% of total Canadian Manufacturing exports each.vii

Manufacturing energy consumption in 2005 and trends

The Manufacturing sector consumed 2526.17 petajoules (PJ) of energy in 2005, according to ICE estimates. Assuming each household uses 115 gigajoules (GJ) annually,viii 1 PJ is approximately equal to the amount of energy consumed by 8700 households in one year. Therefore, in 2005, the Manufacturing sector's energy consumption was approximately the amount consumed by 22 million households in one year (nearly twice the number of households in Canada).

According to the ICE data, the following six subsectors are the highest consumers of energy in the Manufacturing sector:

  • Paper Manufacturing (322)13
  • Primary Metal Manufacturing (331)
  • Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing (324)
  • Chemical Manufacturing (325)
  • Wood Product Manufacturing (321)
  • Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing (327)

Figure 4.1.1 shows that these six subsectors accounted for 88% of the energy use in Canada's Manufacturing sector in 2005. The energy consumption and activities of these subsectors are discussed in detail in the next sections.

Share of energy use in the Manufacturing sector (2005).

The other subsectors, which were responsible for the remaining 12% of manufacturing energy consumption in 2005, are analysed as a group named "Other Manufacturing" subsector.

Figure 4.1.2 shows the trend of the annual energy consumption of the Manufacturing sector between 1995 and 2005.

Total energy use in the Manufacturing sector (1995–2005).

The energy consumption of the Manufacturing sector increased slightly between 1995 and 1997, and then dropped in 1998. Between 1998 and 2000, the consumption of energy increased and dropped again in 2001. The energy consumption increased between 2002 and 2004, but decreased noticeably
(-3.4%) in 2005.

The energy consumed by the Manufacturing sector between 1995 and 2005 increased by 1.4%.

The industry shares of energy consumption, shown in Figure 4.1.3, show the consumption of the seven subsectors (including Other Manufacturing) between 1995 and 2005.

Share of energy use in the Manufacturing sector (1995–2005).

The following observations can be made from these energy shares:

  • The Paper Manufacturing subsector share was 36% in 1995, and since has remained between 32% and 34%.
  • The Primary Metal Manufacturing share remained between 20% and 21%.
  • The shares of the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector increased from 12% to 16% between 1995 and 2004, and then decreased to 14% in 2005.
  • The Chemical Manufacturing subsector peaked slightly in 1997 and 1998, with a share of 12%.
  • Since 1996, the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector's share has been 5%.
  • The Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector share was fairly constant at 5%.
  • The shares of the Other Manufacturing subsector were between 11% and 12%.

Manufacturing energy consumption by source in 2005 and trends

The Manufacturing sector consumed several types of energy in 2005. See Figure 4.1.4 and Table 4.1.1.

Share of energy use in the Manufacturing sector (2005).

Table 4.1.1 Energy use in the Manufacturing sector (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Coal 50.29
Coal coke 92.15
Coke oven gas 29.55
Electricity 723.78
Heavy fuel oil 126.04
Middle distillates 20.60
Natural gas 662.99
Petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst 84.47
Propane 8.24
Refinery fuel gas 186.41
Spent pulping liquor 283.72
Steam 48.76
Wood 209.18
Total 2526.17

Electricity

Electricity was the most consumed energy source in 2005. The consumption was 723.78 PJ, which is 29% of the energy consumed in the Manufacturing sector.

Every subsector in the Manufacturing sector used electricity between 1995 and 2005. Figure 4.1.5 shows that the Primary Metal Manufacturing and Paper Manufacturing subsectors consumed, respectively, 34% and 30% of the total manufacturing electricity consumption in 2005. The Chemical Manufacturing subsector consumed 11% of the electricity in that year.

Share of electricity use in the Manufacturing sector (2005).

Natural gas

Natural gas consumption reached 662.99 PJ in 2005, making it the second-highest energy source consumed in the Manufacturing sector, with 26% of the total consumption.

Natural gas was also consumed by every subsector between 1995 and 2005. In 2005, Chemical Manufacturing, Primary Metal Manufacturing and Paper Manufacturing subsectors were responsible for 25%, 18% and 13%, respectively, of the natural gas consumption in the Manufacturing sector. See Figure 4.1.6.

Share of natural gas use in the Manufacturing sector (2005).

Spent pulping liquor

Since 1995, only the Paper Manufacturing subsector has consumed spent pulping liquor. See Section 4.2 for more details. In 2005, 283.72 PJ of spent pulping liquor was consumed, making it the third-highest consumed source of energy in the Manufacturing sector, representing 11% of its energy consumption.

Wood

The Manufacturing sector used 209.18 PJ of wood in 2005, which represented 8% of its energy use. Figure 4.1.7 shows that wood was used mostly by the Paper Manufacturing subsector (71%) and the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector (28%) in 2005.

Share of wood use in the Manufacturing sector (2005).

Refinery fuel gas

Only the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing (324) subsectors used refinery fuel gas in 2005, for a total of 7% (186.41 PJ) of the total energy consumed by the Manufacturing sector.

Other energy sources

The remaining energy sources, which together accounted for 19% of the total Manufacturing sector's energy consumption in 2005, are

  • coal
  • coal coke
  • coke from catalytic cracking catalyst
  • coke oven gas
  • heavy fuel oil
  • middle distillates
  • petroleum coke
  • propane
  • steam

Some of these energy sources are discussed in greater detail in this summary report. Note that, for confidentiality, the estimates of the energy consumed for coke from catalytic cracking catalyst and petroleum coke were combined.

Figure 4.1.8 presents the relative energy shares of fossil fuel,14 electricity, biomass15 and steam in the Manufacturing sector between 1995 and 2005. The figure shows that half of the energy use in 2005 was fossil fuel, 29% was electricity and 20% was biomass.

Share of energy in the Manufacturing sector (1995–2005).

Fossil fuel remained the most used fuel between 1995 and 2005, but it reached its lowest level in 2005 (50%), whereas electricity reached its highest level (29%). Biomass reached a peak in 1995 (21%) and then stayed relatively constant (between 19% and 20%).

4.2 Paper Manufacturing

Overview of the Paper Manufacturing (322) subsector in Canada

With a GDP of $11.7 billion, the Paper Manufacturing subsector was responsible for 7% of the total GDP in the Manufacturing sector in 2005.ix

The Paper Manufacturing subsector employed 86 600 workers in 2004, of whom 79% were production workers.x

Among the exports of the Paper Manufacturing subsector, 74% were destined for the United States and 4% for China in 2005.xi

Canada was the world's largest producer of newsprint and also the largest supplier of the world market pulp in 2005.xii

Industries in the Paper Manufacturing subsector

Establishments in the Paper Manufacturing (322) subsector make pulp, paper and paper products. The manufacturing of these three products requires linked processes. See Figure 4.2.1.16

Pulp, paper and paper products manufacturing processes.

Wood is made primarily from cellulose fibres, which are held together by lignin, the second-most abundant constituent of wood.

Pulp Mills

The manufacture of pulp involves the separation of wood cellulose fibres by mechanical or chemical action. The Pulp Mills (322110) industry comprises establishments that manufacture pulp but do not make it into paper. The industry also includes establishments that remove printing ink and impurities from waste paper to process the paper into pulp.

The pulp produced in this industry is sold or transferred to separate paper-making establishments. The Pulp Mills industry can be separated into the Mechanical Pulp Mills (322111)17 and the Chemical Pulp Mills (322112) industries.

The pulping process can be performed using mechanical, semichemical or chemicalmethods. Some differences among the three methods are outlined below.

The chemical pulping process cooks woodwith various chemicals, usually underpressure. This process separates the wood into cellulose fibres by removing the lignin (the substance in wood that binds the fibres together). A common chemical pulping process is called the "Kraft process," andchemical pulp from this process is referred to as "Kraft pulp." In the Kraft process, pulping liquor18 is used to dissolve the lignin.

The spent liquor, now called "spent pulping liquor," is then removed from the pulp. This substance, primarily made up of lignin, other wood constituents and chemicals, can be used as a fuel. For example, it can be burned in a boiler to produce steam for manufacturing processes or it can used to produce electricity through thermal generation

The mechanical pulping process separates the fibres physically by grinding wood, but does not remove the lignin.

Because the lignin is not removed, mechanical pulping processes use more of the tree, so fewer trees are required to produce the same amount of paper than with chemical pulping processes. However, the paper produced from pulp containing lignin (such as newsprint) turns yellow when exposed to light.

The semichemical pulping process is a combination of chemical and mechanical pulping processes. The wood is first partially cooked with chemicals and then physically processed using a mechanical method to separate the wood fibres.

Paper Mills and Paperboard Mills

The manufacture of paper involves removing the liquid from the pulp fibres and pressing or forming them into a sheet. The kind of paper or paperboard that is manufactured is determined by the fibre used in the pulping process and the type of pulping method.

Any establishment that makes paper or paperboard (regardless of whether they also manufacture pulp) is classified in the Paper Mills (322120) industry or Paperboard Mills (322130) industry. The Paper Mills (322120) industry is divided into two categories: the Paper Mills (except newsprint) (322121) industry and the Newsprint Mills (322122) industry.

Converted Paper Product Manufacturing

Paper products (such as paperboard containers and paper bags) can be produced from paper and paperboard. Establishments that make paper products from paper and paperboard that they purchased form the Converted Paper Product Manufacturing (322200) industry.

"In 2004, the Canadian industry recovered approximately 46% of the paper and paperboard consumed in Canada and transformed it into new paper and paperboard products." In 1995, this recovery rate was 41%, whereas it was only 20% in 1980.xiii

Paper Manufacturing energy consumption in 2005 and trends

The 2005 ICE survey estimates that the Paper Manufacturing subsector consumed 800.07 PJ of energy, corresponding to 32% of the Manufacturing energy consumption, and making it the largest energy consumer in Canada's Manufacturing sector.

Figure 4.2.2 and Table 4.2.1 show that the greater part of the energy used in paper manufacturing is in the pulping process. The pulping process used 46% (364.37 PJ) of the energy consumed by the Paper Manufacturing subsector in 2005. However, because establishments that make paper and paperboard, in addition to manufacturing pulp, are not included in the estimate of energy consumption for the Pulp Mills industry, this share may be even higher than 46%.

Share of energy use in the Paper Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Table 4.2.1 Energy use in the Paper Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Industry Energy Use (PJ)
Mechanical Pulp Mills (322111) 13.19
Chemical Pulp Mills (322112) 351.18
Paper Mills (322121) 124.11
Newsprint Mills (322122) 226.56
Paperboard Mills (322130) 66.91
Converted Paper Product Manufacturing (322200) 18.12
Paper Manufacturing (322) 800.07

The majority of energy used by the Pulp Mills industry was for the Chemical Pulp Mills industry (351.18 PJ), and the rest was for the Mechanical Pulp Mills industry (13.19 PJ). The second-highest energy consumer in the Paper Manufacturing subsector in 2005 was the Newsprint Mills industry, with 28% (226.56 PJ) of the subsector's energy consumption.

The Paper Mills industry was third, with 16% (124.11 PJ) of the energy consumption. The remaining 10% of the energy consumption was divided between the Paperboard Mills industry, with 8% (66.91 PJ) and Converted Paper Mills industry, with 2% (18.12 PJ).

Figure 4.2.3 shows the trend in energy consumption of the Paper Manufacturing subsector between 1995 and 2005, which varied between 800.07 PJ and 901.08 PJ.

Total energy use in the Paper Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Paper Manufacturing energy consumption by source in 2005 and trends

Table 4.2.2 and Figure 4.2.4 show the energy consumption by energy source for the Paper Manufacturing subsector in 2005.

Table 4.2.2 Energy use in the Paper Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Coal x
Electricity 214.74
Heavy fuel oil 49.97
Middle distillates 1.88
Natural gas 84.04
Propane x
Spent pulping liquor 283.72
Steam 14.72
Wood 149.11
Total 800.07
Confidential 1.90
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Paper Manufacturing subsector (2005).

The Paper Manufacturing subsector is the only producer and consumer of spent pulping liquor. This source of energy was significant for this subsector in 2005 because it represented 35% of the total energy consumption, or 283.72 PJ.

Electricity use accounted for 27% of energy use in the Paper Manufacturing subsector in 2005. The next largest energy sources used were wood (19%), natural gas (11%), heavy fuel oil (6%) and other energy sources19 (2%).

The Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills (322100)20 industry is Canada's leading industrial user of renewable energy, with biomass and small hydro power making up 60% of the industry's energy consumption.xiii

The energy source shares indicate the relative consumption of the energy sources used in the Paper Manufacturing subsector between 1995 and 2005. See Figure 4.2.5.

Share of energy sources used in the Paper Manufacturing subsector (1995–2005).

The relative energy consumption of natural gas decreased, reaching 11% in 2005, and the wood share has increased steadily from 14% to 19% since 1995. The electricity share increased, from 21% in 1995 to 27% in 2005. The spent pulping liquor share was highest in 1995, and then dropped in 1996. Between 1996 and 1999, the share of spent pulping liquor increased. Since then, the share decreased to 35% and has been steady since 2001.

Because the Chemical Pulp Mills and Newsprint Mills industries account for a significant portion of the Paper Manufacturing subsector's energy use, their energy consumption is discussed in detail in the following sections.

Chemical Pulp Mills

In 2005, spent pulping liquor was responsible for 57% (198.49 PJ) of the energy consumed by the Chemical Pulp Mills industry. See Table 4.2.3 and Figure 4.2.6.

Table 4.2.3 Energy use in the Chemical Pulp Mills industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Electricity 41.24
Heavy fuel oil 10.96
Middle distillates 0.62
Natural gas 27.01
Propane x
Spent pulping liquor 198.49
Steam x
Wood 72.71
Total 351.18
Confidential 0.14
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Chemical Pulp Mills industry (2005).

Wood, electricity, natural gas and heavy fuel oil represented 21%, 12%, 8% and 3%, respectively, of the energy consumed by this industry in 2005. Middle distillates, propane and steam, which make up an "Other" category, were also used in 2005, but in smaller quantities.

Figure 4.2.7 shows that between 1995 and 2005, the relative shares of energy consumed by the Chemical Pulp Mills industry were almost unchanged. Spent pulping liquor shares varied between 55% and 59%, wood shares varied between 16% and 21%, electricity shares varied between 9% and 12% and natural gas shares varied between 8% and 12%.

Share of energy use in Chemical Pulp Mills (1995–2005).

Figure 4.2.8 shows that the total energy used by the Chemical Pulp Mills industry was constant (approximately 350 PJ), except in 1995, when it was 382.49 PJ.

Total energy use in Chemical Pulp Mills (1995–2005).

Newsprint Mills

Table 4.2.4 and Figure 4.2.9 show that electricity was responsible for most of the total energy used by the Newsprint Mills industry in 2005, at 50% (113.38 PJ) of the energy consumed.

Table 4.2.4 Energy use in the Newsprint Mills industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Coal x
Electricity 113.38
Heavy fuel oil 18.72
Middle distillates x
Natural gas 12.22
Propane 0.11
Spent pulping liquor 28.45
Steam 7.85
Wood 44.19
Total 226.56
Confidential 1.65
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Newsprint Mills industry (2005).

Wood, spent pulping liquor, heavy fuel oil, natural gas and steam represented 20%, 13%, 8%, 5% and 3%, respectively, of this industry's energy consumption. Propane, coal and middle distillates were also used in 2005, and they have been combined in an "Other" category.

The spent pulping liquor energy share for 2004 is confidential, so it has been combined with the Other category for that year in Figure 4.2.10. This figure shows the relative shares of energy consumed by the Newsprint Mills industry. Electricity shares went from 40% to 50% between 1995 and 2005. Wood shares ranged between 16% and 21%, spent pulping liquor shares ranged between 10% and 16% and heavy fuel oil shares ranged between 8% and 11%. The shares of natural gas dropped from 17% in 1995 to 5% in 2005.

Share of energy use in the Newsprint Mills industry (1995–2005).

Figure 4.2.11 shows that the total energy used by the Newsprint Mills industry decreased from 294.36 PJ to 226.56 PJ (23%) between 1995 and 2005.

Total energy use in the Newsprint Mills industry (1995–2005).

4.3 Primary Metal Manufacturing

Overview of the Primary Metal Manufacturing (331) subsector in Canada

With a GDP of $12 billion, the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector was responsible for 7% of the total GDP in the Manufacturing sector in 2005.xiv

The Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector employed 75 065 workers in 2004, of whom 80% were production workers.xv

Among the exports of the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector, 77% were destined for the United States and 5% for Norway in 2005.xvi

In 2005, Canada ranked third among the world's aluminum-producing countries.xvii

Industries in the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector

The Primary Metal Manufacturing (331) subsector includes establishments that perform smelting and refining of ferrous metals (those that contain iron, including iron-containing alloys, such as steel) and non-ferrous metals (which are metals that do not contain iron, such as aluminum and copper). Smelting refers to the "heat treatment of an ore to separate the metallic portion." Refining is "a separation process whereby undesirable components are removed to give a concentrated and purified product."xviii

Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing

The Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing (331100) industry comprises establishments producing iron and steel. Figure 4.3.1 shows the manufacturing process of iron and steel.

The iron and steel manufacturing process.

A method commonly used for producing iron consists of reducing iron ore in a blast furnace. Iron ore, coal coke21 and flux22 (usually limestone) are smelted together to produce pig iron (molten iron). The pig iron can be used to produce basic iron shapes or can be converted into steel.

The refining process most commonly used to make steel from iron, which is called the "basic oxygen process," uses oxygen to remove the carbon from pig iron through combustion, and thereby produce steel. Steel can also be produced by melting scrap (by-products of steel manufacturing and other material containing steel) in an electric furnace. The electric-arc furnace is the most used electric furnace. The molten steel is then shaped into various products.

This industry also includes establishments that produce ferro-alloys.23

Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum

Establishments in the Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum (331313) industry extract alumina, which is a compound of aluminum and oxygen, from bauxite24 to produce aluminum. The alumina and aluminum manufacturing process is illustrated in Figure 4.3.2.

Alumina and aluminum manufacturing process.

Through a chemical process, alumina is extracted from bauxite. The alumina is then used to produce aluminum by an electrolytic process. Aluminum can also be produced by melting aluminum scrap (by-products of aluminum manufacturing and other material containing aluminum) in a furnace.

The Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum (331313) industry also includes establishments engaged in secondary activities, such as rolling or casting of aluminum that was produced in the same establishment. Rolling is a process for producing sheets or strips of aluminum. In casting, molten aluminum is poured into moulds. Other techniques can also be used.

Non-Ferrous Metal Smelting and Refining

The Non-Ferrous Metal Smelting and Refining (331410) industry smelts non-ferrous metals (such as cobalt, copper, gold and nickel) from ores and refines them. Aluminum processing is not included in this industry.

Foundries

Establishments that produce castings by pouring molten metal into moulds or dies form the Foundries (331500) industry. This industry can be divided into the Ferrous Metal Foundries (331510) industry and the Non-Ferrous Metal Foundries (331520) industry. Ferrous Metal Foundries can be divided further into Iron Foundries (331511) and Steel Foundries (331514).

The following industries are included in the Primary Metal Manufacturing (331) subsector, but are not discussed in detail:

  • Iron and Steel Pipes and Tubes Manufacturing from Purchased Steel (331210)
  • Rolling and Drawing of Purchased Steel (331220)
  • Aluminum Rolling, Drawing, Extruding and Alloying (331317)
  • Copper Rolling, Drawing, Extruding and Alloying (331420)
  • Non-Ferrous Metal (except Copper and Aluminum) Rolling, Drawing, Extruding and Alloying (331490)

Primary Metal Manufacturing energy consumption in 2005 and trends

With 529.16 PJ of energy consumed in 2005, the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector was the second-largest consumer of energy in the Manufacturing sector in Canada.

The energy used in the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry, 237.97 PJ in 2005, represented 45% of the energy consumption in the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector. See Figure 4.3.3 and Table 4.3.1.

Share of energy use in the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Table 4.3.1 Energy use in the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Industry Energy Use (PJ)
Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing (331100) 237.97
Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum (331313) 184.81
Non-ferrous Metal Smelting and Refining (331410) 75.22
Iron Foundries (331511) 5.81
Steel Foundries (331514) 1.06
Non-Ferrous Metal Foundries (331520) 6.08
Other 18.21
Primary Metal Manufacturing (331) 529.16

The Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum industry was responsible for 35% (184.81 PJ) of the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector energy use in 2005. The Non-Ferrous Metal Smelting and Refining, and the Foundries25 industries consumed 14% (75.22 PJ) and 2% (12.95 PJ), respectively, of the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector's energy consumption.

The total energy consumed by the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector between 1995 and 2005 is shown in Figure 4.3.4.

Total energy use in the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

Between 1995 and 2005, the energy consumption of the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector remained relatively stable. The lowest amount of energy, 503.79 PJ, was used in 1995, and the highest amount, 540.50 PJ, was used in 1999.

Primary Metal Manufacturing energy consumption by source in 2005 and trends

The industries in the Primary Metal Manufacturing subsector use different energy sources, depending on their processes. For example, the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry uses coal coke and coke oven gas in large quantities, whereas the Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum industry does not use those energy sources. Because the energy consumption of these two industries accounts for a significant portion of the subsector's total energy use (more than 80%), they are discussed in detail in the following section.

Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing

Table 4.3.2 and Figure 4.3.5 show the energy consumption of the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry for 2005 by source.

Table 4.3.2 Energy use in the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Coal x
Coal coke 89.06
Coke oven gas 29.55
Electricity 32.48
Heavy fuel oil x
Middle distillates 0.83
Natural gas 74.32
Petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst x
Propane 0.05
Steam x
Wood x
Total 237.97
Confidential 11.68
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry (2005).

As stated above, smelting of iron ore requires coal coke, which is produced by heating coal in a coke oven. This process also generates coke oven gas, which is also used as an energy source. The Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry is, therefore, the primary user of these energy sources.

In 2005, the industry consumed 89.06 PJ of coal coke, which is 97% of the total consumption of coal coke by the Manufacturing sector. With respect to the total energy consumed by the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry, coal coke accounted for 37%. Because much of the coal entering the coking process is used for a non-energy use (that is, it is not burned as fuel, but used as a material in the process), it is not included in the energy data provided in this document. Only coal used as an energy source is included.

In the Manufacturing sector, coke oven gas was consumed only by the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry in 2005, and accounted for 12% of the industry's energy consumption. With a share of 31%, natural gas is also an important energy source for the manufacturing of iron and steel. Electricity and other energy sources - that is coal, heavy fuel oil, middle distillates, petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst, propane, steam and wood - represented 14% and 5%, respectively, of the industry's energy use in 2005.

The share of coal coke in this industry's energy consumption peaked in 2001 at 42%, whereas the natural gas share was at its lowest level, at 28%. See Figure 4.3.6.

Share of energy use in the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

Total energy use in the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

Figure 4.3.7 shows that from 2000 to 2001, the energy consumption of the Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro-Alloy Manufacturing industry dropped by 36.92 PJ, a decrease of 14%.

Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum

The Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum industry consumed mainly electricity in 2005. See Table 4.3.3 and Figure 4.3.8.

Table 4.3.3 Energy use in the Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Electricity 165.85
Heavy fuel oil x
Middle distillates x
Natural gas 8.75
Propane x
Total 184.81
Confidential 10.21
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum industry (2005).

The electrolytic process that produces aluminum from alumina requires a lot of electricity. Approximately 54 GJ of electricity are required to produce 1 tonne of aluminum.26 With a consumption of 165.85 PJ, electricity accounted for 90% of energy consumed in the Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum industry in 2005. The remaining 11% of the energy consumption was divided between natural gas, with 5%, and other energy sources - that is, heavy fuel oil, middle distillates and propane - which, together, accounted for 6%.

Although energy costs to produce aluminum are significant, up to 95% of the power required to produce the metal can be saved by recycling aluminum instead of producing it from alumina. Recycling 1 kilogram (kg) of aluminum can save 8 kg of bauxite, 4 kg of chemical products and 15 kilowatt hours (kWh) (0.054 GJ) of electrical power.xix

The shares of electricity and natural gas in the total energy consumption of this industry remained approximately the same between 1995 and 2005. See Figure 4.3.9. The energy share of electricity varied between 89% and 92%, whereas the energy share of natural gas varied between 5% and 8% over this period.

The trend of energy consumption for the years 1995 to 2005 is shown in Figure 4.3.10. Total energy use increased by 29% during those years.

Share of energy use in the Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum industry (1995-2005).

Total energy use in the Primary Production of Alumina and Aluminum industry (1995-2005).

4.4 Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing

Overview of the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing (324) subsector in Canada

With a GDP of $2.0 billion, the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector was responsible for 1% of the total GDP in the Manufacturing sector in 2005.xx

The Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector employed 11 227 workers in 2004, of whom 67% were production workers.xxi

Among the exports of the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector, 95% were destined for the United States in 2005.xxii

Industries in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector

Establishments in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing (324) subsector transform crude petroleum and coal into usable products, such as gasoline or various types of oil.27

Petroleum Refineries

The Petroleum Refineries (324110) industry represents the main industry of the subsector. The petroleum refining process separates various hydrocarbons28 contained in the crude petroleum to produce many products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel oil, light and heavy fuel oils and asphalt. A high-level overview of the steps in the petroleum refining process is shown in Figure 4.4.1.

Petroleum refining process.

The various types of hydrocarbons contained in crude petroleum must be separated to produce usable products. Each type of hydrocarbon has a different boiling point.29 Therefore, they can be separated by a distillation process.

The distillation process in petroleum refining

In the first step, the crude petroleum is boiled and the vapour that is formed goes into a distillation column. The temperature is very high at the bottom of the column and cools as it reaches the top of the column. By going through the distillation column, hydrocarbons contained in the vapour condense and form a liquid when they reach a height where the temperature is equal to their boiling point.30 The liquid products are collected separately. Some gases are collected at the top of the distillation column, and the residual is collected in solid form at the bottom of the distillation column.

Figure 4.4.2 illustrates the basic distillation process. Note that for demonstration purposes, only some of the products that can result from the distillation process are included in this figure.

Distillation process in petroleum refining.

Following the distillation process, many of the products from the distillation column are chemically processed and eventually changed into different petroleum products (the hydrocarbons are converted into other hydrocarbons).

Conversion processes in petroleum refining

The catalytic cracking process separates hydrocarbons into smaller ones by using a catalyst to speed up the cracking (or breaking) process. In addition to the simpler hydrocarbon molecules that are formed, this process produces a by-product called coke from catalytic cracking catalyst. The coke obtained is used as an energy source in the Petroleum Refineries industry.

A thermal cracking process can also be used to break large hydrocarbons into smaller ones. Heavier products from the distillation process can be refined with this method, which consists of cooking hydrocarbons at high temperatures to break them. Smaller hydrocarbons and petroleum coke are produced. Petroleum coke is used as an energy source by a few industries, especially the Petroleum Refineries industry.

Other conversion methods exist, such as combining smaller hydrocarbons to make larger ones, or rearranging them to form the required hydrocarbons.

After they undergo chemical processing, the various hydrocarbons go through another distillation process to be separated. The hydrocarbons are sold or used directly in the Petroleum Refineries industry.

Other industries that are included in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing (324) subsector, but are not discussed in detail in this report, include the following:

  • Asphalt Paving, Roofing and Saturated Materials Manufacturing (324120)
  • Other Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing (324190)

Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing energy consumption in 2005 and trends

A total of 358.02 PJ of energy was consumed by the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector in 2005, making it the third-largest energy consumer in the Manufacturing sector in Canada.

The Petroleum Refineries subsector used most of the energy in this subsector, with 95% (338.45 PJ) of the energy consumption in 2005. See Figure 4.4.3 and Table 4.4.1.

Share of energy use in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Table 4.4.1 Energy use in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Industry Energy Use (PJ)
Petroleum Refineries (324110) 338.45
Other 19.56
Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing (324) 358.02

All other industries included in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector comprise an "Other" category, which used 5% (19.56 PJ) of the subsector's energy consumption.

Figure 4.4.4 shows the energy consumption in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector between 1995 and 2005.

Total energy use in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

Between 1995 and 2004, total energy consumption increased by 38%, rising from 292.95 PJ to 405.49 PJ. A decrease of 12% occurred between 2004 and 2005.

Because the greatest share of energy use in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing subsector is due to the Petroleum Refineries industry, an analysis of the energy consumption data will be provided only for that industry as it greatly influences the subsector's energy consumption.

Petroleum Refineries energy consumption by source in 2005 and trends

The Petroleum Refineries industry relies primarily on refinery fuel gas as its energy source. See Figure 4.4.5. Table 4.4.2 confirms that 183.59 PJ of energy or 54% of that industry's energy consumption was provided by refinery fuel gas in 2005.

Share of energy use in the Petroleum Refineries industry (2005).

Table 4.4.2 Energy use in the Petroleum Refineries industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Electricity 17.92
Heavy fuel oil 36.24
Middle distillates x
Natural gas 40.62
Petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst x
Propane 0.60
Refinery fuel gas 183.59
Steam x
Total 338.45
Confidential 59.48
x=confidential data

Like refinery fuel oil, petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst are by-products of the Petroleum Refineries industry. Their consumption for 2005 is confidential, but in 2004, they represented 18% of the industry energy use when combined. The remaining energy consumption in 2005 was divided among natural gas (12%), heavy fuel oil (11%), electricity (5%), middle distillates, propane and steam.

Figure 4.4.6 shows that the share of energy consumption by energy type for the Petroleum Refineries industry underwent changes between 1995 and 2005. The share of refinery fuel gas is confidential for 2004, so it was combined with the "Other" category comprised of middle distillates, propane and steam. For 2005, since the share of petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst is confidential, it was combined with the Other category in the figure.

Share of energy use in the Petroleum Refineries industry (1995-2005).

The relative consumption of refinery fuel gas increased from 45% to 54% between 1995 and 2005. Conversely, the relative consumption of natural gas decreased from 16% to 12% over the same period. The share of heavy fuel oil was 14% in 1995 and 11% in 2005. The share of petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking varied between 16% and 19% over the study period.

4.5 Chemical Manufacturing

Overview of the Chemical Manufacturing (325) subsector in Canada

With a GDP of $17.2 billion, the Chemical Manufacturing subsector was responsible for 10% of the total GDP in the Manufacturing sector in 2005.xxiii

The Chemical Manufacturing subsector employed 84 534 workers in 2004, of whom 58% were production workers.xxiv

Among the exports of the Chemical Manufacturing subsector, 80% were destined for the United States and 5% for China in 2005.xxv

Industries in the Chemical Manufacturing subsector

Establishments in the Chemical Manufacturing (325) subsector manufacture chemicals and chemical products. The chemicals produced are used by other industries and sectors and in commercial products. This subsector is varied and includes too many industries to describe each one in detail. Therefore, only the biggest energy consumers are described below.

Petrochemical Manufacturing

Establishments in the Petrochemical Manufacturing (325110) industry are primarily involved in making petrochemicals. Examples include benzene (which is used in the manufacturing of other products, such as polystyrene, nylon and dyes) and ethylene (which is used to produce plastics and resins, for example). Petrochemicals are chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas.

All Other Basic Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing

The All Other Basic Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing (325189) industry comprises establishments that manufacture inorganic chemicals and are not classified to any other industry. Examples of inorganic chemicals include ammonium chloride (which is used for the manufacture of dry-cell batteries and quarrying explosives) and sulphur (which is used in the form of sulphuric acid in the production of iron and steel).

Other Basic Organic Chemical Manufacturing

The Other Basic Organic Chemical Manufacturing (325190) industry comprises establishments that manufacture basic organic chemicals and that are not classified in any other industry. Examples of organic chemicals include synthetic sweeteners (sweetening agents) and rosin (which is made by distillation of pine gum or pine wood).

Resin and Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing

Establishments in the Resin and Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing (325210) industry manufacture synthetic resins ("a man-made polymer resulting from a chemical reaction between two (or more) substances"xxvi that can be used in products such as varnishes), plastics materials and synthetic rubber from basic organic chemicals.

Chemical Fertilizer Manufacturing

The Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing (325313) industry includes establishments that manufacture fertilizers. Fertilizers help plant growth by providing additional nutriments.

Many other industries comprise the Chemical Manufacturing (325) subsector, but are not discussed in detail because they do not represent significant energy consumption in this subsector. They include the following:

  • Industrial Gas Manufacturing (325120)
  • Synthetic Dye and Pigment Manufacturing (325130)
  • Alkali and Chlorine Manufacturing (325181)
  • Artificial and Synthetic Fibres and Filaments Manufacturing (325220)
  • Mixed Fertilizer Manufacturing (325314)
  • Pesticide and Other Agricultural Chemical Manufacturing (325320)
  • Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing (325410)
  • Paint and Coating Manufacturing (325510)
  • Adhesive Manufacturing (325520)
  • Soap and Cleaning Compound Manufacturing (325610)
  • Printing Ink Manufacturing (325910)
  • Explosives Manufacturing (325920)
  • Custom Compounding of Purchased Resins (325991)
  • All Other Miscellaneous Chemical Product Manufacturing (325999)

Chemical Manufacturing energy consumption in 2005 and trends

The Chemical Manufacturing subsector consumed 272.83 PJ of energy in 2005, making it the fourth-largest consumer of energy in Canada's Manufacturing sector.

Figure 4.5.1 and Table 4.5.1 show that with 63.47 PJ of energy consumed in 2005, the Petrochemical Manufacturing industry was responsible for 23% of this subsector's energy consumption, whereas 20% (54.65 PJ) was attributable to the Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing industry.

Share of energy use in the Chemical Manufacturing industry (2005).

Table 4.5.1 Energy use in the Chemical Manufacturing industry (2005)
Industry Energy Use (PJ)
Petrochemical Manufacturing (325110) 63.47
All Other Basic Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing (325189) 37.91
Other Basic Organic Chemical Manufacturing (325190) 33.79
Resin and Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing (325210) 28.19
Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing (325313) 54.64
Other 54.81
Chemical Manufacturing (325) 272.83

The remaining 56% of energy consumption was divided between the All Other Basic Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing industry, with 14% (37.91 PJ), the Other Basic Organic Chemical Manufacturing industry, with 12% (33.79 PJ), the Resin and Synthetic Rubber Manufacturing (325210) industry, with 10% (28.19 PJ), and other industries, with 20% (54.81 PJ).

Some interesting trends are shown in Figure 4.5.2, which depicts the subsector's energy consumption between 1995 and 2005.

Total energy use in the Chemical Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

Total energy consumption reached its lowest point at 252.06 PJ in 2002 and its highest point at 306.20 PJ in 1998. Moreover, a decrease of 2% in energy use occurred between 1995 and 2005.

Chemical Manufacturing energy consumption by source in 2005 and trends

The Chemical Manufacturing subsector relies primarily on the use of natural gas. See Table 4.5.2 and Figure 4.5.3. In fact, 60% (162.48 PJ) of this subsector's energy consumption was that of natural gas in 2005.

Table 4.5.2 Energy use in the Chemical Manufacturing industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Electricity 80.42
Heavy fuel oil 3.20
Middle distillates 0.63
Natural gas 162.48
Petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst x
Propane 0.24
Steam 24.63
Wood x
Total 272.83
Confidential 1.24
x=confidential data

Shares of energy use in the Chemical Manufacturing industry (2005).

Following natural gas, the most used energy source in the subsector was electricity, which represents 29% of the total energy consumption. With a share of 9% of the subsector's energy consumption, steam also played a significant role as an energy source. Many other energy sources were consumed (heavy fuel oil, propane, middle distillates, coke from catalytic cracking catalyst and wood), but these other energy sources provided only 2% of the total energy consumed in 2005.

Figure 4.5.4 shows the share of each energy source used by the Chemical Manufacturing (325) subsector between 1995 and 2005.

Share of energy use in the Chemical Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

Between 1995 and 2005, of total energy consumption, the share of natural gas varied between 57% and 67%. The share went from 67% in 1997 to 60% in 2005. At the same time, the share of electricity increased from 26% to 29%, and the share of steam increased from 4% to 9%.

Because the Petrochemical Manufacturing and Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing industries accounted for a significant portion of the Chemical Manufacturing subsector's energy use, they are discussed in detail in the following sections.

Petrochemical Manufacturing

Natural gas supplied 80% (50.72 PJ), which was most of the energy used by the Petrochemical Manufacturing industry in 2005. See Table 4.5.3 and Figure 4.5.5.

Table 4.5.3 Energy use in the Petrochemical Manufacturing industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Electricity 4.50
Middle distillates x
Natural gas 50.72
Propane x
Steam 8.25
Total 63.47
Confidential 0.01
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Petrochemical Manufacturing industry (2005).

Steam and electricity also contributed to the energy used by the industry, with 13% and 7% of energy shares, respectively.

Over the years, the shares of energy consumption have changed. See Figure 4.5.6. Between 1995 and 1997, the share of natural gas increased from 78% to 90%. Between 1997 and 2003, this share decreased to 74% and finally increased to reach 80% in 2005.

The share of electricity remained relatively stable, between 7% and 12%, during this period. Interestingly, no steam was used between 1996 and 1999. However, since then, the share of steam rose to 17%. The steam shares are confidential for 2001 and 2002, and were combined with middle distillates and propane, which make up the "Other" category for those years.

Share of energy use in the Petrochemical Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

The total energy used by the Petrochemical Manufacturing industry dramatically increased between 1999 and 2005. See Figure 4.5.7. Between 1995 and 2005, the total consumption of energy increased 85%, from 34.22 PJ to 63.47 PJ.

Total energy use in the Petrochemical Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing

Most of the energy consumption of the Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing industry, 90% (49.32 PJ), was provided by natural gas in 2005. See Table 4.5.4 and Figure 4.5.8.

Table 4.5.4 Energy use in the Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Electricity 5.09
Heavy fuel oil x
Middle distillates 0.02
Natural gas 49.32
Propane 0.003
Steam x
Total 54.65
Confidential 0.23
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing industry (2005).

The remaining energy use was provided by electricity and other energy sources (heavy fuel oil, middle distillates, propane and steam), with 9% and 0.5%, respectively, of energy shares.

Figure 4.5.9 shows that the shares of natural gas and electricity in the industry's energy use have not changed much over the period of study. In fact, between 1995 and 2005, the natural gas share varied between 89% and 92%, whereas the electricity share varied between 8% and 10%. The shares of other energy sources remained under 1%.

Total energy consumption in the Chemical Fertilizer Manufacturing industry increased between 1996 and 2000. See Figure 4.5.10. A decrease occurred between 2000 and 2002, followed by an increase between 2002 and 2004. Energy use decreased between 2004 and 2005 to reach almost the same level as in 1995. In fact, a decrease of 2% (1.32 PJ) occurred between 1995 and 2005.

Share of energy use in the Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

Total energy use in the Chemical Fertilizer (except Potash) Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

4.6 Wood Product Manufacturing

Overview of the Wood Product Manufacturing (321) subsector in Canada

With a GDP of $13.5 billion, the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector was responsible for 8% of the total GDP in the Manufacturing sector in 2005.xxvii

The Wood Product Manufacturing subsector employed 123 449 workers in 2004, of whom 85% were production workers.xxviii

Among the exports of the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector, 89% were destined for the United States and 6% for Japan in 2005.xxix

Industries in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector

Establishments in the Wood Product Manufacturing (321) subsector manufacture products from wood. The subsector includes establishments that saw logs into wood products, such as particle board and fibreboard, and preserve wood.

Sawmills (except Shingle and Shake Mills)

Establishments in the Sawmills (321111) industry saw logs and bolts (short logs) into boards, dimension lumber (lumber that is cut to a standardized width and depth) and other similar products.

Shingle and Shake Mills

The Shingle and Shake Mills (321112) industry includes establishments that produce shingles ("thin rectangular piece of wood used like tiles for roofing and weatherboarding"xxx) by sawing blocks of wood, and shakes ("a type of shingle usually hand-cleft from a bolt"xxx) by splitting blocks of wood.

Wood Preservation

Establishments in the Wood Preservation (321114) industry treat wood products that are produced in other establishments with preservatives to prevent decay of wood and to protect the wood from insects and fire. The most commonly used preservation method is pressure treating, which forces chemicals (preservatives) into wood under high pressure.

Particle Board and Fibreboard Mills

The Particle Board and Fibreboard Mills (321216) industry comprises establishments that manufacture particle boards and fibreboards.

Particle board is a panel manufactured from wood particles (often residue from wood products manufacturing) bounded together under heat and pressure with an adhesive.

Fibreboard is a panel manufactured from wood fibres bounded together by lignin (a substance found in wood).

Several other industries are included in the Wood Product Manufacturing (321) subsector. However, they are not discussed in detail because ICE data are unavailable for them. They include the following:

  • Hardwood Veneer and Plywood Mills (321211)
  • Softwood Veneer and Plywood Mills (321212)
  • Structural Wood Product Manufacturing (321215)
  • Waferboard Mills (321217)
  • Other Wood Product Manufacturing (321900)

Wood Product Manufacturing energy consumption in 2005 and trends

In 2005, the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector consumed 128.88 PJ of energy, making it the fifth-largest energy consumer in the Canadian Manufacturing sector.

Among the industries for which ICE data are available in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector, the Sawmills industry was the largest energy consumer in 2005, with 38% (48.87 PJ) of the subsector's energy use. See Figure 4.6.1 and Table 4.6.1.

Share of energy use in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Table 4.6.1 Energy use in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Industry Energy Use (PJ)
Sawmills (321111) 48.87
Shingle and Shake Mills (321112) 0.84
Wood Preservation (321114) 2.11
Particle Board and Fibreboard Mills (321216) 17.24
Other 59.83
Wood Product Manufacturing (321) 128.88

The remaining 62% (80.01 PJ) of the subsector's energy consumption was divided among Particle Board and Fibreboard Mills (321216), with 13% (17.24 PJ), Wood Preservation (321114), with 2% (2.11 PJ), Shingle and Shake Mills (321112), with 1% (0.84 PJ), and other industries, with 46% (59.83 PJ).

The total energy consumption of the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector increased from 108.24 PJ to 129.43 PJ between 1995 and 2005, which represents an increase of 19%. See Figure 4.6.2.

Total energy use in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

Wood Product Manufacturing energy consumption by source in 2005 and trends

The Wood Product Manufacturing subsector consumed primarily wood as its energy source in 2005, with 46% (58.72 PJ) of its energy consumption. See Table 4.6.2 and Figure 4.6.3.

Table 4.6.2 Energy use in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Electricity 31.15
Heavy fuel oil 2.07
Middle distillates 5.60
Natural gas 30.36
Propane x
Steam x
Wood 58.72
Total 128.88
Confidential 0.98
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Electricity and natural gas were, respectively, the second and third most-used energy sources, with 24% each of the subsector's energy consumption. The remaining 7% were divided among middle distillates (4%), heavy fuel oil (2%), propane and steam.

The share of each energy source used by the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector between 1995 and 2005 is shown in Figure 4.6.4.

Share of energy use in the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

The share of wood consumption in the total energy use was at its lowest in 2002, with 40%, and at its highest in 1996, with 51%. The share of electricity varied between 17% and 26%. The share of natural gas varied between 24% and 27%. The share of middle distillates varied between 3% and 6%.

The Sawmills industry is responsible for a significant amount of the Wood Product Manufacturing subsector's energy use. As such, the next section provides more detail on the energy consumption in that industry.

Sawmills

Wood and electricity were responsible for 38% (18.34PJ) and 36% (17.59 PJ), respectively, of the Sawmills industry's energy consumption in 2005. See Table 4.6.3 and Figure 4.6.5.

Table 4.6.3 Energy use in the Sawmills industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Electricity 17.59
Heavy fuel oil 1.10
Middle distillates 2.76
Natural gas 8.77
Propane x
Steam x
Wood 18.34
Total 48.87
Confidential 0.31
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Sawmills industry (2005).

The remaining 27% of energy consumption was attributable to natural gas (18%), middle distillates (6%), heavy fuel oil (2%), propane and steam.

The shares of energy consumption varied significantly between 1995 and 2005. See Figure 4.6.6. The share of wood reached a high in 1999, with 47%, and a low in 1997 and 2002, with 34%. Since 2003, its energy share has been 38%. The share of electricity varied between 20% and 36%. The share of natural gas varied between 21% and 31%.

Figure 4.6.7 shows the total energy use in the Sawmills industry between 1995 and 2005. As indicated, total energy use was almost equal in 1995 and 2005 (47.74 PJ and 48.87 PJ, respectively). However, between those two years, total energy use varied greatly. A high was reached in 2000, with 63.19 PJ of energy consumed.

Share of energy use in the Sawmills industry (1995-2005).

Total energy use in the Sawmills industry (1995-2005).

4.7 Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing

Overview of the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing (327) subsector in Canada

With a GDP of $5.1 billion, the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector was responsible for 3% of the total GDP in the Manufacturing sector in 2005.xxxi

The Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector employed 48 426 workers in 2005, of whom 78% were production workers.xxxii

Among the exports of the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector, 93% were destined for the United States in 2005.xxxiii

Canada was the world's third-largest producer of gypsum in 2005.xxxiv

Industries in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector

Establishments in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing (327) subsector transform non-metallic minerals (such as sand, gravel, stone and clay) into different products, such as glass, cement, concrete products, lime and gypsum.

Glass and Glass Product Manufacturing industry

The Glass and Glass Product Manufacturing (327200) industry manufactures glass and glass products. The establishments that make glass from sand and cullet (recycled glass) comprise the Glass Manufacturing (327214) industry. Those that re-melt, press, blow or otherwise shape purchased glass to produce glass products comprise the Glass Product Manufacturing from Purchased Glass (327215) industry.31

The glass manufacturing process begins with the melting of glass - made from silica sand and cullet - at high temperatures. Fluxes are added to lower the temperature at which the glass melts and to improve the chemical stability of the glass. The melted glass is then shaped by various processes. The molten glass can be moulded, rolled, blown or pressed, and is then slowly cooled (the annealing process). See Figure 4.7.1.

Glass and glass product manufacturing process.

Cement Manufacturing

Establishments in the Cement Manufacturing (327310) industry are engaged primarily in the production of cement. Figure 4.7.2 shows the process of manufacturing Portland cement, the type that is most widely used.

To make cement, first, limestone is crushed. Other raw materials - such as silica, alumina and iron, which may also be crushed beforehand, depending on the size of the particles of the material - are combined with the crushed limestone to compose a raw mix. This raw mix is then carefully proportioned.

Cement manufacturing process.

Next, the raw mix is processed at high temperatures in a rotating furnace or kiln, to produce an intermediate product called clinker. Cement is produced by grinding clinker to a fine powder and mixing it with gypsum and other additives.

Approximately 1.6 tonnes of raw material are required to produce 1 tonne of cement (85% limestone and 15% silica, alumina and iron, combined).xxxiii

Lime and Gypsum Product Manufacturing

Establishments in the Lime and Gypsum Product Manufacturing (327400) subsector manufacture lime and gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster. This industry can be divided into two industries: Lime Manufacturing (327410) and Gypsum Product Manufacturing (327420).

Establishments in the Lime Manufacturing (327410) industry manufacture lime. The manufacturing processes of quicklime and hydrated lime are illustrated in Figure 4.7.3.

Lime manufacturing process.

To produce quicklime, limestone32 is first crushed and screened. The crushed limestone is then burned in a kiln to release carbon dioxide. This process, which is called "calcination," creates different types of quicklime, depending on the concentration of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) in the limestone. For example, high-calcium quicklime (CaO) is derived from limestone with high calcium and low magnesium content, and dolomitic quicklime (CaOMgO) is derived from limestone with high magnesium and calcium content.33

Quicklime can be further processed by adding water to produce a dry powder called "hydrated lime." The type of hydrated lime produced depends on the type of quicklime used and on the hydrating conditions employed.

Among many other applications, lime is used in steel manufacturing industries to remove impurities from the steel. In pulp manufacturing industries, lime can be used to produce cooking liquors.

Establishments in the Gypsum Product Manufacturing (327420) subsector manufacture products composed of gypsum, such as gypsum building products, joint compounds and plaster.

Many other industries comprise the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing (327) subsector, but are not discussed in detail because ICE data is unavailable for them. These include the following:

  • Clay Product and Refractory Manufacturing (327100)
  • Ready-Mix Concrete Manufacturing (327320)
  • Concrete Pipe, Brick and Block Manufacturing (327330)
  • Other Concrete Product Manufacturing (327390)
  • Other Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing (327900)

Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing energy consumption in 2005 and trends

The Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector was the sixth-largest consumer of energy in the Manufacturing sector in 2005, with a total of 124.49 PJ of energy consumed.

With a consumption of 66.62 PJ, 54% of the subsector's energy consumption was attributable to the Cement Manufacturing industry in 2005, and 11% (14.17 PJ) was attributable to the Glass and Glass Product Manufacturing industry. See Figure 4.7.4 and Table 4.7.1.

Share of energy in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Table 4.7.1 Energy use in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Industry Energy Use (PJ)
Glass Manufacturing (327214) 11.76
Glass Product Manufacturing from Purchased Glass (327215) 2.41
Cement Manufacturing (327310) 66.62
Lime Manufacturing (327410) 13.82
Gypsum Product Manufacturing (327420) 8.80
Other 21.09
Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing (327) 124.49

The Gypsum Product Manufacturing (327420) industry was responsible for 7% (8.80 PJ) of the subsector's energy consumption. The remaining 28% (34.90 PJ) was consumed by the Lime Manufacturing industry (11%) and by other industries (17%).

Energy consumption in the subsector increased by 6% between 1995 and 2005. Energy consumption reached a high in 2004 with 126.54 PJ, and a low in 2001 with 115.20 PJ. See Figure 4.7.5.

Total energy use in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing energy consumption by source in 2005 and trends

The most widely consumed types of energy used in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector were petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst (19%), natural gas (30%) and electricity (14%). Middle distillates and heavy fuel oil each represented 3% of the subsector's energy consumption. See Table 4.7.2 and Figure 4.7.6.

Table 4.7.2 Energy use in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Coal x
Coal coke 1.51
Electricity 16.99
Heavy fuel oil 3.92
Middle distillates 3.99
Natural gas 36.75
Petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst 23.91
Propane 0.46
Steam x
Wood x
Total 124.49
Confidential 36.98
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Figure 4.7.7 shows the share of each energy source in this subsector. Because data on coal consumption for 2004 and 2005 are confidential, these values have been combined with the "Other" category (comprised of coal coke, propane, steam and wood) to produce the figure.

Share of energy use in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

The share of natural gas decreased between 1997 and 2003. Conversely, the shares of coal and petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst increased. The share of electricity remained relatively constant over this period, at approximately 12% to 13%.

The industries in the Non-Metallic Mineral Product Manufacturing subsector manufacture a variety of products that require several manufacturing processes. Therefore, the shares of energy use can vary widely between each industry in this subsector. Because the Cement Manufacturing industry accounts for the most significant portion of the subsector's energy consumption, this industry's energy use is discussed in detail in the following section.

Cement Manufacturing

The Cement Manufacturing industry relies greatly on petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst as energy sources. In 2005, the combined share of petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst reached 29% (19.06 PJ) of this industry's energy consumption. See Table 4.7.3 and Figure 4.7.8.

Table 4.7.3 Energy use in the Cement Manufacturing industry (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Coal x
Coal coke x
Electricity 7.84
Heavy fuel oil 2.81
Middle distillates 0.71
Natural gas 2.55
Petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst 19.06
Propane 0.01
Wood x
Total 66.62
Confidential 33.64
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Cement Manufacturing industry (2005).

The next largest energy sources used in 2005 were electricity (12%), heavy fuel oil (4%) and natural gas (4%). Other energy sources (coal, coal coke, middle distillates, propane and wood) were responsible for 52% of the industry's energy consumption.

Some interesting trends are shown in Figure 4.7.9. Most of the energy used for the manufacture of cement was derived from coal between 1995 and 2003. The contribution of coal to the industry's energy use increased from 42% to 54% during this period. Because data for the consumption of coal for 2004 and 2005 are confidential, they have been combined with the "Other" category (comprised of coal coke, middle distillates, propane and wood) for those years to produce Figure 4.7.9.

Petroleum coke and coke from catalytic cracking catalyst were the second-highest energy source consumed between 1995 and 2003. The share of electricity remained between 11% and 13% for the period of 1995 to 2005, while the share of natural gas decreased from 25% to 4%. A drop in natural gas from 15% to 4% occurred between 2002 and 2003.

Share of energy use in the Cement Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

Figure 4.7.10 shows that the total energy consumption in the Cement Manufacturing industry increased 15% between 1995 and 2005.

Total energy use in the Cement Manufacturing industry (1995-2005).

4.8 Other Manufacturing

Although Statistics Canada collects energy use data and provides estimates for each subsector included in the Manufacturing sector (NAICS 31 to 33) through the ICE survey, this summary report does not describe each subsector in detail.

The six subsectors presented previously in this summary report are the main energy-consuming subsectors of the Manufacturing sector and were described in some detail. However, to describe the entire sector's energy consumption as concisely as possible, all other subsectors have been combined into a residual category called the Other Manufacturing subsector.

In this summary report,34 the Other Manufacturing subsector comprises the subsectors listed in Table 4.8.1. These include all other Manufacturing subsectors (NAICS 311 to 339) not already discussed in this report. The definitions of each subsector in the Manufacturing sector are given in Appendix B.

Table 4.8.1 Subsectors included in the Other Manufacturing subsector
  Subsector
311 Food Manufacturing
312 Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing
313 Textile Mills
314 Textile Product Mills
315 Clothing Manufacturing
316 Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing
323 Printing and Related Support Activities
326 Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing
332 Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing
333 Machinery Manufacturing
334 Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing
335 Electrical Equipment, Appliance and Component Manufacturing
336 Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
337 Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing
339 Miscellaneous Manufacturing

A wide variety of processes are involved in the Other Manufacturing subsector, which are not discussed in this summary report. The following section provides only the energy consumption of this subsector.

Other Manufacturing energy consumption in 2005 and trends

In 2005, 312.73 PJ of energy were consumed by the Other Manufacturing subsector. See Table 4.8.2. Figure 4.8.1 shows the energy shares of the subsectors included in the Other Manufacturing subsector.

Table 4.8.2 Energy use in the Other Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Subsector Energy Use (PJ)
Food Manufacturing 91.67
Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing 12.02
Textile Mills 7.29
Textile Product Mills 3.50
Clothing Manufacturing 2.50
Leather and Allied Product Manufacturing 0.37
Printing and Related Support Activities 8.66
Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing 39.09
Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing 41.98
Machinery Manufacturing 17.53
Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing 5.56
Electrical Equipment, Appliance and Component Manufacturing 7.18
Transportation Equipment Manufacturing 57.52
Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing 11.66
Miscellaneous Manufacturing 6.21
Other Manufacturing 312.73

Share of energy in the Other Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Food Manufacturing, Transportation Equipment Manufacturing, Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing, and Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing subsectors were responsible for 29% (91.67 PJ), 18% (57.52 PJ), 13% (41.98 PJ) and 12% (39.09 PJ), respectively, of the energy consumed in 2005. The remaining 27% (82.47 PJ) of energy consumed was divided among the Machinery Manufacturing, Beverage and Tobacco Product Manufacturing, Furniture and Related Product Manufacturing and other subsectors.

The total energy consumption in the Other Manufacturing subsector increased 8% between 1995 and 2005, from 290.52 PJ to 312.73 PJ. See Figure 4.8.2.

Total energy use in the Other Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

Other Manufacturing energy consumption by source in 2005 and trends

Table 4.8.3 and Figure 4.8.3 show that 57% (179.19 PJ) of the energy consumed by the Other Manufacturing subsector in 2005 was natural gas. Electricity was the second most widely used energy source (36%). Heavy fuel oil and middle distillates consumed 2% and 1%, respectively. The other energy sources (coal, propane, steam and wood) represented 3%.

Table 4.8.3 Energy use in the Other Manufacturing subsector (2005)
Type of Energy Energy Use (PJ)
Coal x
Electricity 112.84
Heavy fuel oil 7.68
Middle distillates 4.61
Natural gas 179.19
Propane x
Steam x
Wood 0.29
Total 312.73
Confidential 8.12
x=confidential data

Share of energy use in the Other Manufacturing subsector (2005).

Figure 4.8.4 shows the shares of energy consumption by energy type for 1995 to 2005.

Share of energy use in the Other Manufacturing subsector (1995-2005).

The lowest energy share of natural gas was reached in 2005, with 57% of the subsector's energy consumption. Conversely, the share of electricity reached its highest level in 2005, with 36% of the energy consumed.

12 In this summary report, GDP is reported in chained 1997 dollars.

13 The subsectors are presented with their three-digit NAICS code in parentheses. Industry groups, industries and national industries are also presented with their NAICS code, but at the six-digit level, and they are referred to as industries in this summary report.

14 "Fossil fuel" includes coal, coal coke, coke from catalytic cracking catalyst, coke oven gas, heavy fuel oil, middle distillates, natural gas, petroleum coke, propane and refinery fuel gas.

15 "Biomass" includes spent pulping liquor and wood.

16 Note that the illustrated manufacturing processes are simplified. They do not describe details of the manufacturing processes, but give only a general idea of each sector's main activity.

17 "Mechanical Pulp Mill (322111) industry" includes semi-chemical pulping methods.

18 Pulping liquor is a substance primarily made up of lignin and other wood constituents and chemicals that are by-products of the manufacture of chemical pulp.

19 The energy sources included in "Other" are coal, middle distillates, propane and steam.

20 "Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills (322100) industry" includes the Pulp Mills (322110) industry, the Paper Mills (322120) industry and the Paperboard Mills (322130) industry.

21 The coal coke used in the blast furnaces can be made onsite by converting coal to coal coke in a coke oven. This process produces coke oven gas that is then used as an energy source by establishments.

22 Flux is "a substance that promotes the fusing of minerals or metals or prevents the formation of oxides."xvii

23 Ferro-alloy is "an alloy of iron with some element other than carbon used as a vehicle for introducing such an element into steel during its manufacture."xviii

24 Bauxite is "a natural aggregate of aluminum-bearing minerals."xviii

25 "Foundries (331500) industry" includes the Iron Foundries (331511), Steel Foundries (331514) and Non-Ferrous Metal Foundries (331520) industries.

26 An average of 15 kWh (0.054 GJ) is needed to produce 1 kg of aluminum.xix

27 The ICE survey collected energy data for only the Petroleum Refineries (324110) industry in the Petroleum and Coal Products Manufacturing (324) subsector.

28 Hydrocarbons are molecules composed of hydrogen and carbon atoms. For example, methane (CH4) is a hydrocarbon with one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms.

29 The boiling point is the temperature at which a liquid changes its state to a vapour (gas).

30 The hydrocarbons with low boiling points will condense at higher points in the distillation column, and those with high boiling points will condense in lower locations.

31 "Glass Product Manufacturing from Purchased Glass (327215) industry" also includes establishments that blow glass by hand.

32 Limestone is a mineral that contains mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) or a mixture of CaCO3 and MgCO3.

33 High-calcium quicklime contains less than 5% magnesium oxide (MgO); dolomitic quicklime contains between 35% and 45% MgO. A third type of quicklime, "magnesium quicklime," contains between 5% and 35% MgO.

34 Note that the definition of "Other Manufacturing" can vary depending on the publication. Use discretion when comparing data from different data sources.




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