Activity: Term used to characterize major drivers of energy use in a sector (e.g. floor space area in the commercial/institutional sector).
AECO-C Hub: A hub is a market centre where several pipelines interconnect and where many buyers and sellers trade gas, thereby creating a liquid pricing point. The AAECO-C hub is the main pricing point for Alberta natural gas and represents the major pricing point for Canadian gas. Prices are determined via the spot market, which includes all transactions for sales of 30 days or less, but it typically refers to a 30-day sale.
Agriculture: The agriculture sector includes all types of farms, including livestock, field crops, grain and oilseed farms, as well as activities related to hunting and trapping. Energy used in this sector is for farm production and includes energy use by establishments engaged in agricultural activities and in providing services to agriculture. Agriculture energy use is included in total secondary energy use for Canada.
Apartment: This type of dwelling includes dwelling units in apartment blocks or apartment hotels; flats in duplexes or triplexes (i.e. where the division between dwelling units is horizontal); suites in structurally converted houses; living quarters located above or in the rear of stores, restaurants, garages or other business premises; caretakers’ quarters in schools, churches, warehouses, etc.; and private quarters for employees in hospitals or other types of institutions.
Appliance: Energy-consuming equipment used in the home for purposes other than air conditioning, centralized water heating and lighting. Includes cooking appliances (gas stoves and ovens, electric stoves and ovens, microwave ovens, and propane or gas grills); cooling appliances (evaporative coolers, attic fans, window or ceiling fans, and portable or table fans); and refrigerators, freezers, clothes washers and dishwashers. Other appliances include small ones such as televisions, video cassette recorders, digital video disc players, radios, computers and toasters.
Auxiliary Equipment: With the exception of auxiliary motors (see Auxiliary Motors), “auxiliary equipment” includes stand-alone equipment powered directly from an electrical outlet, such as computers, photocopiers, refrigerators and desktop lamps. It also includes equipment that can be powered by natural gas, propane or other fuels, such as clothes dryers and cooking appliances.
Auxiliary Motors: Refers to devices used to transform electric power into mechanical energy in order to provide a service, such as pumps, ventilators, compressors and conveyors.
Biomass: Includes wood waste and pulping liquor. Wood waste is a fuel consisting of bark, shavings, sawdust and low-grade lumber and lumber rejects from the operation of pulp mills, sawmills and plywood mills. Pulping liquor is a substance primarily made up of lignin and other wood constituents and chemicals that are by-products of the manufacture of chemical pulp. It can produce steam for industrial processes when burned in a boiler and/or produce electricity through thermal generation.
Capacity Utilization: The rates of capacity use are measures of the intensity with which industries use their production capacity. It is the ratio of an industry’s actual output to its estimated potential output.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2): A compound of carbon and oxygen formed whenever carbon is burned. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a colourless gas that absorbs infrared radiation, mostly at wavelengths between 12 and 18 microns. It behaves as a one-way filter, allowing incoming, visible light to pass through in one direction while preventing outgoing infrared radiation from passing in the opposite direction. The one-way filtering effect of CO2 causes an excess of the infrared radiation to be trapped in the atmosphere; thus it acts as a “greenhouse” and has the potential to increase the surface temperature of the planet (see Greenhouse Gas).
Company Average Fuel Consumption (CAFC): The Government of Canada encourages improvements in the fuel efficiency of the Canadian new vehicle fleet by setting voluntary annual company average fuel consumption goals for vehicle manufacturers and importers.
Cooling Degree-Day (CDD): A measure of how hot a location was over a period, relative to a base temperature. In this handbook, the base temperature is 18.0°C and the period is one year. If the daily average temperature exceeds the base temperature, the number of cooling degree-days (CDDs) for that day is the difference between the two temperatures. However, if the daily average is equal to or less than the base temperature, the number of CDDs for that day is zero. The number of CDDs for a longer period is the sum of the daily CDDs for the days in that period.
Cooling Degree-Day Index: A measure of how relatively hot (or cold) a year was when compared with the cooling degree-day (CDD) average. When the CDD index is above (below) 1, the observed temperature is warmer (colder) than normal. The CDD normal represents a weighted average of the 1951–1980 CDDs observed in a number of weather stations across Canada. Its value varies from year to year because of population flow.
Dwelling: A dwelling is defined as a structurally separate set of living premises with a private entrance from outside the building or from a common hallway or stairway inside. A private dwelling is one in which one person, a family or other small group of individuals may reside, such as a single house or apartment.
Electricity Conversion Loss: The energy lost during the conversion from primary energy (petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydro, uranium and biomass) into electrical energy. Losses occur during generation, transmission and distribution of electricity and include plant and unaccounted-for uses.
End-Use: Any specific activity that requires energy (e.g. refrigeration, space heating, water heating, manufacturing processes and feedstock).
Energy Intensity: The amount of energy use per unit of activity. Examples of activity measures in this report are households, floor space, passenger-kilometres, tonne-kilometres, physical units of production and constant dollar value of gross domestic product.
Energy Source: Any substance that supplies heat or power (e.g. petroleum, natural gas, coal, renewable energy and electricity), including the use of a fuel as a non-energy feedstock.
Floor Space (area): The area enclosed by exterior walls of a building. In the residential sector, it excludes parking areas, basements or other floors below ground level; these areas are included in the commercial/institutional sector. It is measured in square metres.
Gigajoule (GJ): One gigajoule equals 1 × 109 joules (see Petajoule).
Greenhouse Gas (GHG): A greenhouse gas (GHG) absorbs and radiates heat in the lower atmosphere that otherwise would be lost in space. The greenhouse effect is essential for life on this planet, since it keeps average global temperatures high enough to support plant and animal growth. The main GHGs are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrous oxide (N2O). By far the most abundant GHG is CO2, accounting for about 70 percent of total GHG emissions (see Carbon Dioxide).
Greenhouse Gas Intensity of Energy: The amount of greenhouse gases emitted per unit of energy used.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total value of goods and services produced within Canada during a given year. Also referred to as annual economic output or, more simply, output. To avoid counting the same output more than once, gross domestic product (GDP) includes only final goods and services – not those that are used to make another product. GDP figures are reported in constant 2002 dollars.
Gross Output (GO): The total value of goods and services produced by an industry. It is the sum of the industry’s shipments plus the change in value due to labour and capital investment. Gross output figures are reported in constant 2002 dollars.
Heat Gain: Heat gained by a building from the operation of appliances. These heat gains reduce the space heating load in the winter and increase the space cooling load in the summer.
Heat Loss: Represents the amount of energy released as heat by an appliance or piece of equipment while it is in operation.
Heating Degree-Day (HDD): A measure of how cold a location was over a period, relative to a base temperature. In this handbook, the base temperature is 18.0°C and the period is one year. If the daily average temperature is below the base temperature, the number of heating degree-days (HDDs) for that day is the difference between the two temperatures. However, if the daily average temperature is equal to or higher than the base temperature, the number of HDDs for that day is zero. The number of HDDs for a longer period is the sum of the daily HDDs for the days in that period.
Heating Degree-Day Index: A measure of how relatively cold (or hot) a year was when compared with the heating degree-day (HDD) average. When the HDD index is above (below) 1, the observed temperature is colder (warmer) than normal. The HDD normal represents a weighted average of the 1951–1980 HDDs observed in a number of weather stations across Canada. Its value varies from year to year because of population flow.
Heavy Truck: A truck with a gross vehicle weight that is more than, or equal to, 14 970 kilograms (kg) (33 001 pounds [lb.]). The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.
Household: A person or a group of people occupying one dwelling unit is defined as a household. The number of households will, therefore, be equal to the number of occupied dwellings.
Housing Stock: The physical number of dwellings is referred to as the housing stock. As opposed to the number of households, which refers to the number of occupied dwellings, housing stock includes both occupied and unoccupied dwellings.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh): The commercial unit of electricity energy equivalent to 1000 watt-hours. A kilowatt-hour can best be visualized as the amount of electricity consumed by ten 100-watt bulbs burning for an hour. One kilowatt-hour equals 3.6 million joules (see Watt).
Light Truck: A truck of up to 3855 kg (8500 lb.) of gross vehicle weight. The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight. This class of vehicles includes pickup trucks, minivans and sport utility vehicles.
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) and Gas Plant Natural Gas Liquids (NGL): Propane and butane are liquefied gases extracted from natural gas (i.e. gas plant NGL) or from refined petroleum products (i.e. LPG) at the processing plant.
Medium Truck: A truck with a gross vehicle weight ranging from 3856 to 14 969 kg (8501 to 33 000 lb.). The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.
Megajoule (MJ): One megajoule equals 1 × 106 joules (see Petajoule).
Mobile Home: A moveable dwelling designed and constructed to be transported by road on its own chassis to a site and placed on a temporary foundation (such as blocks, posts or a prepared pad). If required, it can be moved to a new location.
Model Year: An annual period in which a national automotive industry organizes its operations and within which new models are announced. For example, if the “model year” is 2004, it begins September 1, 2003, and ends August 31, 2004.
Multifactor Productivity: The ratio of output per unit of combined inputs (capital services and labour services).
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS): A classification system that categorizes establishments into groups with similar economic activities. The structure of the Northern American Industry Classification System, adopted by Statistics Canada in 1997 to replace the 1980 Standard Industrial Classification, was developed by the statistical agencies of Canada, Mexico and the United States.
Passenger-kilometre (Pkm): An activity measure in the passenger transportation sub-sector describing the transportation of one passenger over a distance of one kilometre.
Petajoule (PJ): One petajoule equals 1 × 1015 joules. A joule is the international unit of measure of energy – the energy produced by the power of one watt flowing for a second. There are 3.6 million joules in one kilowatt-hour (see Kilowatt-hour).
Pulping Liquor: A substance primarily made up of lignin, other wood constituents and chemicals that are by-products of the manufacture of chemical pulp. It can produce steam for industrial processes when burned in a boiler and/or produce electricity through thermal generation.
Sector: The broadest category for which energy consumption and intensity are considered within the Canadian economy (e.g. residential, commercial/institutional, industrial, transportation, agriculture and electricity generation).
Single Attached (dwelling): Each half of a semi-detached (double) house and each section of a row or terrace are defined as single attached dwellings. A single dwelling attached to a non-residential structure also belongs to this category.
Single Detached (dwelling): This type of dwelling is commonly called a single house (i.e. a house containing one dwelling unit and completely separated on all sides from any other building or structure).
Space Cooling: Conditioning of room air for human comfort by a refrigeration unit (e.g. air conditioner or heat pump) or by the circulation of chilled water through a central- or district-cooling system.
Space Heating: The use of mechanical equipment to heat all or part of a building. Includes the principal space heating unit and any supplementary equipment.
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC): A classification system that categorizes establishments into groups with similar economic activities.
Terajoule (TJ): One terajoule equals 1 × 1012 joules (see Petajoule)
Tonne-kilometre (Tkm): An activity measure for the freight transportation subsector describing the transportation of one tonne over a distance of one kilometre.
Vintage: The year of origin or age of a unit of capital stock (e.g. a building or a car).
Waste Fuel: A name applied to any number of energy sources other than conventional fuels used in the cement industry. It includes materials such as tires, municipal waste and landfill off-gases.
Water Heater: An automatically controlled vessel designed for heating water and storing heated water.
Water Heating: The use of energy to heat water for hot running water, as well as the use of energy to heat water on stoves and in auxiliary water heating equipment for bathing, cleaning and other non-cooking applications.
Watt (W): A measure of power. For example, a 40-watt light bulb uses 40 watts of electricity (see Kilowatt-hour).
Wood Waste: Fuel consisting of bark, shavings, sawdust, low-grade lumber and lumber rejects from the operation of pulp mills, sawmills and plywood mills.