Industrial Energy Prices and Background Indicators
  1990   2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Energy Prices by Energy Source (incl. taxes)
Natural Gas (cents/m3)a,e 10.5   18.6 14.0 16.4 20.8 15.6
Light Fuel Oil (cents/litre)f 25.8   94.6 96.9 98.5 99.3 76.4
Heavy Fuel Oil (cents/litre)f 14.1   72.2 77.0 74.2 72.2 55.6
Electricity (1,000 kW/400,000 kWh)1 (cents/kWh)b,e 5.6   9.5 10.0 11.1 10.4 9.9
Electricity (5,000 kW/3,060,000 kWh)1 (cents/kWh)b,e 4.0   7.5 8.0 9.1 8.3 7.6

Background Indicators
Industrial GDP (million $2007)g 291,400   402,490 410,780 417,281 431,486 424,825

Capacity Utilization Rate (%)c
Mining 79.8   79.8 75.7 75.8 77.8 75.3
Manufacturing 78.2   79.6 80.6 79.7 81.5 81.8
Pulp and Paper 83.7   87.9 86.4 88.5 88.9 90.1
Primary Metals2 85.1   85.1 83.0 83.2 81.3 73.7
Petroleum Refining 87.5   79.5 79.4 79.0 83.0 85.0
Chemicals 86.6   75.8 77.0 77.2 77.8 83.8
Forestry 78.3   88.1 86.2 90.0 84.5 90.5
Construction 96.2   84.1 87.4 88.4 89.6 85.7

Industrial Employees (thousands)d
Mining 192   272 297 300 308 290
Manufacturing 2,050   1,722 1,747 1,723 1,711 1,712
Pulp and Paper 124   62 58 58 57 56
Primary Metals2 91   62 61 58 58 57
Petroleum Refining 19   19 19 20 19 19
Chemicals 96   81 85 83 82 89
Forestry 73   48 51 50 49 49
Construction 816   1,295 1,323 1,370 1,372 1,371

Footnotes:

1) kW refers to power hook-up, whereas kWh refers to monthly electricity consumption.
2) “Primary Metals” includes iron and steel, smelting and refining, and other primary metal activity.

Sources:

a) Statistics Canada, Energy Statistics Handbook, 1990–2010, (Cat. No. 57-601-X). Data for 2011 onward are taken from Statistics Canada, Average retail prices for gasoline and fuel oil by urban centre, Table 326-0009, Ottawa, 2017 (CANSIM).
b) Hydro-Québec, Comparison of Electricity Prices in Major North American Cities, 2015.
c) Statistics Canada, Table 028-0002, Ottawa, 2017 (CANSIM).
d) Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey, Table 282-0008, and Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours, Tables 281-0005 and 281-0024, Ottawa, 2017 (CANSIM).
e) Statistics Canada, Report on Energy Supply and Demand in Canada, 1990–2015, Ottawa, 2017 (CANSIM).
f) Natural Resources Canada, Petroleum Resources Branch, Pipelines, Gas and LNG Division, Ottawa, 2017.
g) Statistics Canada, Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) CANSIM (Table 379-0031), Ottawa, 2017. Data prior to 1997 were estimated by Canadian Industrial Energy End Use Data and Analysis Centre, 1990 to 2015, Simon Fraser University, 2017 and Natural Resources Canada.