Transportation Sector – Energy Use Analysis
  1990   2013 2014
Total Transportation
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 1,877.89   2,685.93 2,676.79
Passenger Transportation 1,154.00   1,387.10 1,365.15
Freight Transportation 670.54   1,188.82 1,199.55
Off-Road1 53.35   110.01 112.09

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Cars 705.47   561.66 537.41
Light Trucks 313.05   681.21 683.90
Medium Trucks 120.59   315.26 315.96
Heavy Trucks 253.63   495.13 510.32
Motorcycles 2.37   5.62 5.47
School Buses 13.45   13.39 12.67
Urban Transit 24.63   42.09 42.30
Inter-City Buses 7.92   5.56 5.26
Passenger Air 180.92   267.68 269.46
Freight Air 6.52   6.28 6.12
Passenger Rail 3.75   2.10 2.00
Freight Rail 85.71   90.95 93.84
Marine 106.52   88.98 79.97
Off-Road1 53.35   110.01 112.09

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Electricity 3.10   4.36 4.46
Natural Gas 1.66   1.49 3.91
Motor Gasoline 1,120.39   1,422.06 1,402.69
Diesel Fuel Oil 469.80   850.09 862.27
Ethanol 0.00   64.18 68.24
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene 0.00   0.00 0.00
Heavy Fuel Oil 60.14   59.37 50.09
Aviation Gasoline 5.51   2.20 1.90
Aviation Turbo Fuel 181.93   271.76 273.69
Propane 35.36   10.43 9.54

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 492,296   750,288 750,744
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 574,552   917,275 971,573
Passenger Transportation Energy Intensity Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (MJ/Pkm) 2.26   1.82 1.79
Freight Transportation Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 1.17   1.30 1.23
Total Change in Energy Excluding Off-Road and Non-Commercial Aviation (PJ) 0.00   767.96 758.89

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   931.77 1,001.26
Structure Effect 0.00   339.27 331.79
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -503.08 -574.15

Total Passenger Transportation
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 1,154.00   1,387.10 1,365.2
Total Energy Use Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (PJ) 1,114.73   1,364.42 1,344.62

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Cars 705.47   561.66 537.41
Light Trucks 215.48   489.00 490.57
Medium Trucks 0.00   0.00 0.00
Heavy Trucks 0.00   0.00 0.00
Motorcycles 2.37   5.62 5.47
School Buses 13.45   13.39 12.67
Urban Transit 24.63   42.09 42.30
Inter-City Buses 7.92   5.56 5.26
Air 180.92   267.68 269.46
Rail 3.75   2.10 2.00
Marine 0.00   0.00 0.00
Off-Road1 0.00   0.00 0.00

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Electricity 3.10   4.36 4.46
Natural Gas 1.61   1.22 3.49
Motor Gasoline 902.44   995.40 969.41
Diesel Fuel Oil 47.15   68.29 66.43
Ethanol 0.00   45.13 47.29
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene 0.00   0.00 0.00
Commercial Aviation – Aviation Gasoline 1.56   0.89 1.31
Commercial Aviation – Aviation Turbo Fuel 140.09   244.10 247.62
Non-Commercial Aviation – Aviation Gasoline 3.87   1.28 0.56
Non-Commercial Aviation – Aviation Turbo Fuel 35.39   21.40 19.97
Propane 18.79   5.03 4.61

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 492,296   750,288 750,744
Energy Intensity Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (MJ/Pkm) 2.26   1.82 1.79
Total Change in Energy Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (PJ) 0.00   249.68 229.89

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   515.92 516.7
Structure Effect 0.00   25.80 25.09
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -292.04 -311.94

Light Vehicles
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 923.33   1,056.28 1,033.45

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Cars 705.47   561.66 537.41
Light Trucks 215.48   489.00 490.57
Motorcycles 2.37   5.62 5.47

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 1.14   0.53 1.15
Motor Gasoline 895.98   994.67 968.71
Diesel Fuel Oil 10.19   10.95 11.72
Ethanol 0.00   45.10 47.26
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 16.02   5.03 4.61

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 388,069   528,418 517,886
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 2.38   2.00 2.00
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   132.95 110.13

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   417.00 417.64
Structure Effect 0.00   -67.97 -86.83
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -216.09 -220.69

Cars
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 705.47   561.66 537.41

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 1.14   0.52 1.14
Motor Gasoline 687.37   526.30 500.95
Diesel Fuel Oil 4.51   7.10 7.39
Ethanol 0.00   23.76 24.28
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 12.45   3.97 3.65

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 311,376   309,753 297,453
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 2.27   1.81 1.81
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -143.81 -168.06

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   267.31 267.64
Structure Effect 0.00   -269.61 -292.21
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -141.50 -143.49

Light Trucks
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 215.48   489.00 490.57

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.00   0.01 0.01
Motor Gasoline 206.23   462.99 462.54
Diesel Fuel Oil 5.68   3.84 4.33
Ethanol 0.00   21.10 22.73
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 3.57   1.06 0.97

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 75,089   215,464 217,314
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 2.87   2.27 2.26
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   273.52 275.09

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   148.40 148.70
Structure Effect 0.00   200.82 204.71
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -75.70 -78.31

Motorcycles
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 2.37   5.62 5.47

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Motor Gasoline 2.37   5.38 5.23
Ethanol 0.00   0.23 0.24

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 1,604   3,201 3,118
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 1.48   1.75 1.75
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   3.24 3.10

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   1.30 1.30
Structure Effect 0.00   0.83 0.68
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   1.11 1.11

Buses
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 46.00   61.04 60.24

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
School Buses 13.45   13.39 12.67
Urban Transit 24.63   42.09 42.30
Inter-City Buses 7.92   5.56 5.26

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Electricity 3.10   4.36 4.46
Natural Gas 0.47   0.69 2.34
Motor Gasoline 6.46   0.72 0.69
Diesel Fuel Oil 33.21   55.24 52.71
Ethanol 0.00   0.03 0.03
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 2.77   0.00 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 35,669   64,628 63,488
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 1.29   0.94 0.95
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   15.04 14.24

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   21.13 21.17
Structure Effect 0.00   11.03 10.83
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -17.13 -17.76

School Buses
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 13.45   13.39 12.67

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.00   0.00 0.00
Motor Gasoline 4.86   0.38 0.36
Diesel Fuel Oil 5.83   13.00 12.29
Ethanol 0.00   0.02 0.02
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 2.76   0.00 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 15,013   31,775 30,688
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 0.90   0.42 0.41
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -0.06 -0.78

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   5.78 5.79
Structure Effect 0.00   4.62 4.16
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -10.47 -10.74

Urban Transit
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 24.63   42.09 42.30

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Electricity 3.10   4.36 4.46
Natural Gas 0.47   0.69 2.34
Motor Gasoline 1.15   0.07 0.07
Diesel Fuel Oil 19.91   36.98 35.44
Ethanol 0.00   0.00 0.00
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 0.00   0.00 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 12,821   25,289 25,642
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 1.92   1.66 1.65
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   17.46 17.68

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   12.44 12.47
Structure Effect 0.00   9.45 10.00
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -4.43 -4.80

Inter-City Buses
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 7.92   5.56 5.26

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.00   0.00 0.00
Motor Gasoline 0.45   0.28 0.27
Diesel Fuel Oil 7.47   5.27 4.98
Ethanol 0.00   0.01 0.01
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 0.00   0.00 0.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 7,835   7,563 7,158
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 1.01   0.74 0.74
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -2.36 -2.66

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   2.91 2.91
Structure Effect 0.00   -3.03 -3.33
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -2.23 -2.23

Passenger Rail
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 3.75   2.10 2.00

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Diesel Fuel Oil 3.75   2.10 2.00

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 1,782   1,365 1,327
Energy Intensity (MJ/Pkm) 2.11   1.54 1.50
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -1.65 -1.76

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   1.12 1.12
Structure Effect 0.00   -2.01 -2.07
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -0.76 -0.81

Passenger Air
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 180.92   267.68 269.46

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Commercial Aviation – Aviation Gasoline 1.56   0.89 1.31
Commercial Aviation – Aviation Turbo Fuel 140.09   244.10 247.62
Non-Commercial Aviation – Aviation Gasoline 3.87   1.28 0.56
Non-Commercial Aviation – Aviation Turbo Fuel 35.39   21.40 19.97

Activity
Passenger-kilometres (millions) 66,776   155,876 168,043
Energy Intensity Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (MJ/Pkm) 2.12   1.57 1.48
Total Change in Energy Excluding Non-Commercial Aviation (PJ) 0.00   103.34 107.28

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   76.66 76.81
Structure Effect 0.00   84.75 103.16
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -58.06 -72.68

Total Freight Transportation
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 670.54   1,188.82 1,199.55

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Light Trucks (0 to 3,855 kg [0 to 8,500 lb.]) 97.57   192.21 193.33
Medium Trucks (3,856 to 14,969 kg [8,501 to 33,000 lb.]) 120.59   315.26 315.96
Heavy Trucks (14,970 kg [33,001 lb.] or more) 253.63   495.13 510.32
Air 6.52   6.28 6.12
Rail 85.71   90.95 93.84
Marine 106.52   88.98 79.97

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.06   0.27 0.42
Motor Gasoline 164.61   321.27 326.22
Diesel Fuel Oil 422.64   781.80 795.83
Ethanol 0.00   14.44 15.93
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Light Fuel Oil and Kerosene 0.00   0.00 0.00
Heavy Fuel Oil 60.14   59.37 50.09
Aviation Gasoline 0.07   0.02 0.03
Aviation Turbo Fuel 6.45   6.26 6.09
Propane 16.57   5.39 4.93

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 574,552   917,275 971,573
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 1.17   1.30 1.23
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   518.28 529.01

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   415.86 484.52
Structure Effect 0.00   313.46 306.69
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -211.04 -262.21

Truck – Freight Transportation
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 471.79   1,002.60 1,019.61

Energy Use by Transportation Mode (PJ)
Light Trucks (0 to 3,855 kg [0 to 8,500 lb.]) 97.57   192.21 193.33
Medium Trucks (3,856 to 14,969 kg [8,501 to 33,000 lb.]) 120.59   315.26 315.96
Heavy Trucks (14,970 kg [33,001 lb.] or more) 253.63   495.13 510.32

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.06   0.27 0.42
Motor Gasoline 164.61   321.27 326.22
Diesel Fuel Oil 290.55   661.24 672.11
Ethanol 0.00   14.44 15.93
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 16.57   5.39 4.93

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 134,581   327,795 353,817
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 3.51   3.06 2.88
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   530.82 547.83

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   326.85 384.99
Structure Effect 0.00   361.29 358.50
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -157.33 -195.67

Light Trucks (0 to 3,855 kg [0 to 8,500 lb.])
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 97.57   192.21 193.33

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.06   0.12 0.19
Motor Gasoline 79.39   177.63 178.25
Diesel Fuel Oil 2.18   1.56 1.69
Ethanol 0.00   8.09 8.78
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 15.95   4.81 4.41

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 10,508   27,037 27,336
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 9.28   7.11 7.07
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   94.64 95.76

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   65.69 76.78
Structure Effect 0.00   67.22 58.25
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -38.27 -39.26

Medium Trucks (3,856 to 14,969 kg [8,501 to 33,000 lb.])
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 120.59   315.26 315.96

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Natural Gas 0.00   0.15 0.24
Motor Gasoline 85.22   143.63 147.97
Diesel Fuel Oil 34.75   164.55 160.10
Ethanol 0.00   6.35 7.15
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00
Propane 0.62   0.58 0.52

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 13,630   49,224 50,169
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 8.85   6.40 6.30
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   194.67 195.37

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   86.37 104.52
Structure Effect 0.00   174.16 162.02
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -65.86 -71.16

Heavy Trucks (14,970 kg [33,001 lb.] or more)
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 253.63   495.13 510.32

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Diesel Fuel Oil 253.63   495.13 510.32
Biodiesel Fuel 0.00   0.00 0.00

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 110,443   251,534 276,313
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 2.30   1.97 1.85
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   241.51 256.69

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   174.79 203.70
Structure Effect 0.00   119.91 138.23
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -53.20 -85.24

Marine
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 106.52   88.98 79.97

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Diesel Fuel Oil 46.38   29.62 29.88
Heavy Fuel Oil 60.14   59.37 50.09

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 189,869   201,080 199,935
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 0.56   0.44 0.40
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -17.54 -26.55

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   48.45 53.30
Structure Effect 0.00   -44.40 -49.73
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -21.59 -30.12

Freight Rail
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 85.71   90.95 93.84

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Diesel Fuel Oil 85.71   90.95 93.84

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 248,348   386,132 415,452
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 0.35   0.24 0.23
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   5.24 8.13

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   37.07 42.38
Structure Effect 0.00   -1.67 -0.22
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -30.17 -34.03

Freight Air
 
Total Energy Use (PJ) 6.52   6.28 6.12

Energy Use by Energy Source (PJ)
Aviation Gasoline 0.07   0.02 0.03
Aviation Turbo Fuel 6.45   6.26 6.09

Activity
Tonne-kilometres (millions) 1,754   2,269 2,369
Energy Intensity (MJ/Tkm) 3.72   2.77 2.58
Total Change in Energy (PJ) 0.00   -0.24 -0.40

Energy Indicator Analysis
 
Change in Energy Due to (PJ)
Activity Effect 0.00   3.49 3.84
Structure Effect 0.00   -1.76 -1.85
Energy Efficiency Effect 0.00   -1.96 -2.39

Footnotes:

1) “Off Road” includes vehicles not registered for on-road travel such as ATVs, snowmobiles, golf carts and some military vehicles.