Glossary and Abbreviations
Activity (Activité):Term used to characterize major drivers of energy use in a sector (e.g. floor space area in the commercial/institutional sector).
AECO-C Hub (Centre de stockage AECO-C):A hub is a market centre where several pipelines interconnect and where many buyers and sellers trade gas, thereby creating a liquid pricing point. The AECO-C hub is the main pricing point for Alberta natural gas and represents the major pricing point for Canadian gas. Prices are determined via the spot market, which includes all transactions for sales of 30 days or less, but most typically refers to a 30-day sale.
Agriculture (Agriculture):The agriculture sector includes all types of farms, including livestock, field crops, grain and oilseed farms, as well as activities related to hunting and trapping. Energy used in this sector is for farm production and includes energy use by establishments engaged in agricultural activities and in providing services to agriculture. Agriculture energy use is included in total secondary energy use for Canada.
Air conditioning (Climatisation):Set of operations aimed at comfort by creating and maintaining predetermined conditions of temperature, relative humidity, speed and purity of air.
Air exchanger (Échangeur d'air):A device allowing the transfer of air from one area to another.
Alternate fuel (Carburant de remplacement):Every fuel other than conventional fuel (i.e. gasoline and diesel) that is used for motor vehicle transportation. The most common alternative fuels in Canada are propane, compressed natural gas and a blend of ethanol and gasoline.
Apartment (Appartement):This type of dwelling includes dwelling units in apartment blocks or apartment hotels; flats in duplexes or triplexes (i.e. where the division between dwelling units is horizontal); suites in structurally converted houses; living quarters located above or in the rear of stores, restaurants, garages or other business premises; caretakers' quarters in schools, churches, warehouses, etc.; and private quarters for employees in hospitals or other types of institutions. The Survey of Household Energy Use (SHEU-2003) only includes apartments located within a building with fewer than five storeys.
Appliance (Appareil ménager):Energy-consuming equipment used in the home for purposes other than air conditioning, centralized water heating and lighting. Includes cooking appliances (gas stoves and ovens, electric stoves and ovens, microwave ovens, and propane or gas grills); cooling appliances (evaporative coolers, attic fans, window or ceiling fans, and portable or table fans); and refrigerators, freezers, clothes washers and dishwashers. Other appliances include small ones such as televisions, video cassette recorders, digital video disc players, radios, computers and toasters.
Attic (Grenier):The accessible space between roof rafters and ceiling joists.
Automatic defrost (Dégivrage automatique):Automatic elimination of frost deposits that may have formed on the inside walls of a freezer.
Auxiliary equipment (Équipement auxiliaire):With the exception of auxiliary motors (see Auxiliary Motors), "auxiliary equipment" includes stand-alone equipment powered directly from an electrical outlet such as computers, photocopiers, refrigerators and desktop lamps. It also includes equipment that can be powered by natural gas, propane or other fuels, such as clothes dryers and cooking appliances.
Auxiliary motors (Moteurs auxiliaires):Refers to devices used to transform electric power into mechanical energy in order to provide a service, such as pumps, ventilators, compressors and conveyors.
Ballast (Régulateur):A device used with a fluorescent-type lamp to provide the necessary starting and operating electric conditions.
Basement (Sous-sol):The usable part of a building that is located partially or completely beneath the outside ground level.
Biomass (Biomasse):Includes wood waste and pulping liquor. Wood waste is a fuel consisting of bark, shavings, sawdust and low-grade lumber and lumber rejects from the operation of pulp mills, sawmills and plywood mills. Pulping liquor is a substance primarily made up of lignin and other wood constituents and chemicals that are by-products of the manufacture of chemical pulp. It can produce steam for industrial processes when burned in a boiler and/or produce electricity through thermal generation.
Bitumen (Bitume):A very heavy crude oil or tar consisting of a naturally occurring viscous mixture, mainly hydrocarbons heavier than pentane that may contain sulphur compounds and other minerals. In its natural viscous state, bitumen is not recoverable at a commercial rate through a well.
Boiler (Chaudière):A pressurized system in which water is vaporized to steam by heat transfer from fuel combustion. Steam thus generated may be used directly as a heating medium or converted to mechanical energy.
Btu (British thermal unit) (Btu [British thermal unit]):The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit.
Built-in oven (Four encastré):A domestic appliance placed in a closed compartment with a supply of heat, used for cooking food. In contrast to the kitchen stove, the built-in oven is neither mobile nor equipped with surface heating elements (burners).
Capacity utilization (Utilisation de la capacité):The rates of capacity use are measures of the intensity with which industries use their production capacity. It is the ratio of an industry's actual output to its estimated potential output.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) (Dioxyde de carbone): A compound of carbon and oxygen formed whenever carbon is burned. Carbon dioxide is a colourless gas that absorbs infrared radiation, mostly at wavelengths between 12 and 18 microns. It behaves as a one-way filter, allowing incoming visible light to pass through in one direction, while preventing outgoing infrared radiation from passing in the opposite direction. The one-way filtering effect of carbon dioxide causes an excess of the infrared radiation to be trapped in the atmosphere; thus it acts as a "greenhouse" and has the potential to increase the surface temperature of the planet (see Greenhouse Gas).
Ceiling fan (Ventilateur de plafond):A motorized fan installed on the ceiling and used to force the circulation of air in a given direction.
Census Metropolitan area (Région métropolitaine de recensement):As defined by Statistics Canada, a Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) is a very large urban area (know as urban and rural fringes) that have a high degree of social and economic integration with the urban core.
Central air conditioner (Climatisateur central):Powered by electricity, this device removes heat from an indoor living space to maintain comfortable conditions during hot, humid weather and conveys it to the outdoors. Designed to cool a house, the large compressor and outdoor coil are located outdoors and are connected by refrigerant lines to an indoor coil mounted in the furnace. The same duct system is used for both heating and cooling air distribution.
Clothes dryer (Sécheuse):Appliance used to dry clothing by evaporation accelerated by applying heat and rapid air movement. The air is usually heated by electricity or natural gas.
Clothes washer (Laveuse):An appliance for washing laundry, composed of a washtub, an agitator and a system for draining used water. An opening at the top or front of the appliance provides access to the washtub.
Coal (Charbon):A combustible mineral substance (carbonized vegetable matter).
Cogeneration (Cogénération):The simultaneous production of electric power and another form of useful energy (such as heat or steam) from the same fuel source. The heat or steam (that would otherwise be wasted) can be used for industrial process or other heating and/or cooling applications.
Coke (Coke):A hard, porous product made from baking bituminous coal in ovens at high temperatures.
Coke oven gas (Gaz de cokerie):A complex gas (containing hydrogen, methane, light oil, ammonia, pitch, tar and other minerals) released during coke production.
Combined heat and power (CHP) generation (Production combinée de chaleur et d'électricité [CCE]):See Cogeneration.
Compact fluorescent lights (Lampe fluorescente compacte):General term applied to smaller-diameter fluorescent lights.
Compact stereo (Minichaîne stéréo):A compact stereo is a one-component stereo system that is not capable of being easily carried or moved about because of its size or design (no built-in handles or carrying straps).
Company average fuel consumption (CAFC) (Consommation moyenne de carburant de l'entreprise [CMCE]):The Government of Canada encourages improvements in the fuel efficiency of the Canadian new vehicle fleet by setting voluntary annual company average fuel consumption (CAFC) goals for vehicle manufacturers and importers.
Component stereo system (Chaîne stéréo):A component stereo system has two or more components. Each component has its own electrical plug. The components and speakers operate together to produce sound. Components may include an amplifier, audio-video receiver, CD player, tape player, record player and radio tuner.
Condensation (Condensation):A physical reaction wherein water vapour molecules unite to form water droplets that attach themselves to the interior surface of a window.
Condensing clothes dryer (Sécheuse à condensation):A clothes dryer where all the steam created by the drying process is cooled and condensed back into water. This water is then collected in a reservoir inside the machine. It is a vent-less clothes dryer.
Conversion loss (Perte de conversion):The energy lost during the conversion from primary energy (petroleum, natural gas, coal, hydro, uranium, wind, biomass and solar energy) into electrical energy. Losses occur during generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, and include plant and unaccounted-for uses.
Cooktop (Plaque chauffante):Appliance not attached to an oven, used for cooking food (the kitchen stove is a one-piece appliance containing an oven and a cooktop).
Cooling degree-day (CDD) (Degré-jour de réfrigération [DJR]):A measure of how hot a location was over a period, relative to a base temperature. In this handbook, the base temperature is 18.0°C and the period is one year. If the daily average temperature exceeds the base temperature, the number of cooling degree-days for that day is the difference between the two temperatures. However, if the daily average is equal to or less than the base temperature, the number of cooling degree-days for that day is zero. The number of cooling degree-days for a longer period is the sum of the daily cooling degree-days for the days in that period.
Cooling degree-day index (Indice des degrés-jours de réfrigération) :A measure of how relatively hot (or cold) a year was when compared with the cooling degree-day (CDD) average. When the CDD index is above (below) 1, the observed temperature is warmer (colder) than normal. The CDD normal represents a weighted average of the 1951-1980 CDDs observed in a number of weather stations across Canada. Its value, which varies from year to year because of the flow of population, was 170 CDDs in 2004.
Crawl space (Vide sanitaire):A ventilated, open, low space between the ground and the lowest storey of a building.
Dishwasher (Lave-vaisselle):An appliance designed to wash dishes automatically. Water is sprayed over dishes either by fixed jets aimed at a rotating basket or by rotating jets.
Distance travelled (Distance parcourue):An estimation of the number of kilometres (km) travelled per vehicle during a given period. The term "distance travelled" is often interchanged with "number of kilometres travelled."
Double-paned window (Fenêtre à vitrage double):A window containing two panes of glass separated by an air space.
Dwelling (Logement):A dwelling is defined as a structurally separate set of living premises with a private entrance from outside the building or from a common hallway or stairway inside.A private dwelling is one in which one person, a family or other small group of individuals may reside, such as a single house or apartment.
Economies of scale (Économies d'échelle):Occurs when there are advantages to large-scale production for a firm. Long-run average costs fall as production levels increase, reducing the per unit cost of the output.
Electric baseboard (Plinthe électrique):An electric heat-emitting appliance located at ground (or ceiling) level. This appliance may be made of cast iron or flanges.
Electric radiant heating (Chauffage radiant électrique):Radiant heat sources warm objects within their range without necessarily having to heat up the surrounding space. Two types of electric radiant heating are portable infrared heaters and electric radiant heating cables installed in a floor or ceiling.
Electricity (Perte de conversion de l'électricité):A form of energy emanating from electric charges at rest or in movement.
End-use (Utilisation finale):Any specific activity that requires energy (e.g. refrigeration, space heating, water heating, manufacturing processes and feedstock).
Energy efficiency (Efficacité énergétique):This term refers to how effectively energy is being used for a given purpose. For example, providing a similar (or better) level of service with less energy consumption on a per unit basis is considered an improvement in energy efficiency.
Energy intensity (Intensité énergétique):The amount of energy used per unit of activity. Examples of activity measures are households, floor space, passenger-kilometres, tonne-kilometres, physical units of production and constant dollar value of gross domestic product.
Energy source (Source d'énergie):Any substance that supplies heat or power (e.g. petroleum, natural gas, coal, renewable energy and electricity).
ENERGY STAR® qualified product (Produit homologué ENERGY STAR®):As an international symbol of energy efficiency, the ENERGY STAR mark helps consumers identify which appliances on the market are the most energy efficient in their class. Administered in Canada by Natural Resources Canada, the ENERGY STAR symbol is used mainly to identify products offering premium performance levels in energy efficiency. The ENERGY STAR symbol can be found on product packaging, literature and advertising and on the products themselves. In some cases, you may also find it on the EnerGuide label. The following criteria are used to determine if an appliance qualifies for the ENERGY STAR mark.
- A standard-size refrigerator must exceed the minimum energy performance standard established by the Government of Canada by at least 10 percent in 2003, and at least 15 percent in 2004. A standard-size freezer must, in 2003, exceed these standards by at least 10 percent. Compact refrigerators and freezers must exceed these same standards by at least 20 percent.
- A standard-size dishwasher must exceed the minimum energy performance standards established by the Government of Canada by at least 25 percent in 2003. Only standard-size dishwashers can qualify for the ENERGY STAR mark.
- A clothes washer must use from 35 to 50 percent less water and at least 50 percent less energy per load than conventional washers.
- A television must use 3 watts or less when turned off, i.e., use 75 percent less energy than conventional televisions, which consume up to 12 watts when turned off.
- A video cassette recorder must use 4 watts or less when turned off, i.e., use 70 percent less energy than conventional video cassette recorders, which consume up to 13 watts when turned off.
- A DVD player must use 3 watts or less when turned off, i.e., use 75 percent less energy than conventional DVD players, which consume up to 10 watts when turned off.
- A system stereo must use 2 watts or less when turned off, i.e., use 70 percent less energy than conventional stereo systems, which consume up to 7 watts when turned off.
- A room air conditioner must exceed the minimum energy performance standards established by the Government of Canada by at least 10 percent in 2003. A central air conditioner must exceed these standards by 20 percent.
- A forced-air furnace must have an annual fuel utilization efficiency rating of 90 or higher. A furnace (boiler) with hot water or steam radiators must have an annual fuel utilization efficiency rating of 85 or higher.
- A furnace (boiler) with hot water or steam radiators must have an annual fuel utilization efficiency rating of 85 or higher.
Factorization method (Méthode de factorisation):A statistical method, based on the Log-Mean Divisia Index I (LMDI I) approach, is used to separate changes in energy use into five factors: activity, structure, weather, service level and energy efficiency.
Fireplace (Foyer):The space reserved in a wall or chimney mantle in which a heating apparatus can be installed and equipped with a chimney flue.
Floor space (area) (Surface de plancher [superficie]):The area enclosed by exterior walls of a building. In the residential sector, it excludes parking areas, basements or other floors below ground level; these areas are included in the commercial/institutional sector. It is measured in square metres.
Fluorescent lighting (Lumière fluorescente):A lighting unit that emits light by the excitation of a gas (such as neon) enclosed within a sealed tube or bulb. The terms "neon tube", "neon" and "fluorescent tube" are all used to designate the source of fluorescent light.
Fossil fuel (Combustible fossile):Any naturally occurring organic fuel, such as petroleum, coal and natural gas.
Foundation (Fondation):A structure of masonry, reinforced concrete or steel that supports and immobilizes support units and structural members of a frame. It is designed to evenly distribute all loads that are transmitted to it toward or under the ground. The word foundation includes basement, crawl space and slab on grade (concrete). It is the base on which a house rests.
Freezer (Congélateur):Appliance designed to freeze products at a temperature of approximately -15°C. The process of freezing involves removing heat from products to lower their temperature to a point where most of the water they contain is solidified. This is a separate appliance and is not part of a refrigerator. It is built as either a vertical model (with a door that opens outward) or a chest-style model (with a lid).
Fuel (Carburant):Refers to gasoline, fuel mixtures, diesel and propane, and to fuels used on farms. Vehicles that use a fuel other than gasoline represent only a small percentage of private vehicles.
Full cord (standard) (Corde de bois [standard]):The English standard measure equivalent to a pile of wood measuring 1.2 m x 1.2 m x 2.4 m (4' x 4' x 8'); that is, 3.4 m³ (128 cu. ft.). The term "bush cord" is sometimes used to designate the full cord.
Furnace (boiler) with hot water or steam radiators (Fournaise [chaudière] avec radiateurs à eau chaude ou à vapeur):A heating system with a pump that distributes water heated by a boiler through a network of pipes in the dwelling to radiators in the rooms. The radiators release the heat from the water into the room.
Furnace with forced air (hot air vents) (Fournaise avec bouches d'air chaud):A furnace that distributes heat by using a motor-driven fan to circulate heated air through the duct system of a dwelling. The heated air is delivered to different rooms through air vents.
Garage (Garage):A shelter or space, generally enclosed, designed to accommodate vehicles other than horse-drawn vehicles.
Geothermal system (Système géothermique):A geothermal system is a heat exchanger that uses the earth or ground water or both as sources of heat in the winter and as the "sink" for heat removed from the building in the summer. The system provides heat by removing it from the earth through a liquid, such as ground water or an antifreeze solution, which is upgraded by the heat pump and transferred to indoor air. The system provides cooling by reversing the process.
Gigajoule (Gigajoule):One gigajoule equals 1 x 109 joules (see Petajoule).
Greenhouse gas (GHG) (Gaz à effet de serre [GES]):A greenhouse gas absorbs and radiates heat in the lower atmosphere that otherwise would be lost in space. The greenhouse effect is essential for life on this planet, since it keeps average global temperatures high enough to support plant and animal growth. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrous oxide (N20). By far the most abundant greenhouse gas is CO2, accounting for 70 percent of total greenhouse gas emissions (see Carbon dioxide).
Greenhouse gas intensity (Intensité en gaz à effet de serre):The amount of greenhouse gas emitted per unit of energy used.
Gross domestic product (GDP) (Produit intérieur brut [PIB]):The total value of goods and services produced within Canada during a given year. Also referred to as annual economic output or, more simply, output. To avoid counting the same output more than once, GDP includes only final goods and services – not those that are used to make another product. GDP figures are reported in constant 2002 dollars.
Gross output (GO) (Production brute [(PB)]):The total value of goods and services produced by an industry. It is the sum of the industry's shipments plus the change in value due to labour and capital investment. Gross output figures are reported in constant 2002 dollars.
Halogen light bulbs (Lampe à halogène):Incandescent lights containing halogen gases, which burn very hot while providing an intense white light.
Heat gain (Gain de chaleur):Heat gained by a building from the operation of appliances. These heat gains reduce the space heating load in the winter and increase the space cooling load in the summer.
Heat loss (Perte de chaleur):Represents the amount of energy released as heat by an appliance or piece of equipment while it is in operation.
Heat pump (Thermopompe):A heating and cooling unit that draws heat from an outdoor source and transports it to an indoor space for heating purposes; or inversely, for cooling purposes.
Heating degree-day (HDD) (Degré-jour de chauffage [DJC]):A measure of how cold a location was over a period, relative to a base temperature. In this handbook, the base temperature is 18.0°C and the period is one year. If the daily average temperature is below the base temperature, the number of heating degree-days for that day is the difference between the two temperatures. However, if the daily average temperature is equal to or higher than the base temperature, the number of heating degree-days for that day is zero. The number of heating degree-days for a longer period is the sum of the daily heating degree-days for the days in that period.
Heating degree-day index (Indice des degrés-jours de chauffage):A measure of how relatively cold (or hot) a year was when compared with the heating degree-day (HDD) average. When the HDD index is above (below) 1, the observed temperature is colder (warmer) than normal. The HDD normal represents a weighted average of the 1951-1980 HDDs observed in a number of weather stations across Canada. Its value, which varies from year to year because of the flow of population, was 4476 HDDs in 2004.
Heavy truck (As referred to in the Energy Efficiency Trends in Canada report)(Camion lourd):A truck with a gross vehicle weight that is more than, or equal to, 14,970 kg (33,001 lb.). The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.
High efficiency back-up furnace (Fournaise d'appoint à haut rendement):A furnace with additional heat exchange surfaces used to supplement a heat pump. These extract most of the heat remaining in the combustion by-products through a condensing heat-exchange process.
Horsepower (hp) (Horsepower):A unit of power commonly used for vehicle engines, equal to 75 metre kilograms-force per second; equal to 735.49875 watts.
Hot water tank (Réservoir d'eau chaude):A thermally insulated tank with automatic controls designed to produce and hold hot water.
Hours of operation (Heures d'exploitation):The time when the building is open for normal operation, not including the time when only maintenance, housekeeping of security staff may be in the building.
Household (Ménage):A person or a group of people occupying one dwelling unit is defined as a household. The number of households will, therefore, be equal to the number of occupied dwellings.
Household size (Taille du ménage):The number of people per household.
Housing stock (Parc de logements):The physical number of dwellings is referred to as the housing stock. As opposed to the number of households, which refers to the number of occupied dwellings, housing stock includes both occupied and unoccupied dwellings.
Idling (Marche au ralenti):Occurs when power is delivered by an engine but is not used for any useful work.
Imputation (Imputation):A statistical process that entails the replacement of missing values with a realistic value through analysis, using the information available about the unit in question.
Incandescent light (Incandescente):A term generally applied to lamps that generate light when an electric current heats a metallic filament to incandescence. The expression also applies to arc lamps.
Incandescent light bulb (Ampoule à incandescence):A glass globe containing electrodes within a vacuum, which produces electric light. More commonly called an ordinary light bulb.
Insulation blanket (Couverture isolante, Isolation du réservoir d'eau):Insulation that covers a hot water tank in order to conserve energy.
Kilometre (km) (Kilomètre [km]):A metric unit of distance, equivalent to 0.6214 of a mile.
Kilowatt-hour (kWh) (Kilowattheure [kWh]):The commercial unit of electricity energy equivalent to 1000 watt-hours. A kilowatt-hour can best be visualized as the amount of electricity consumed by ten 100-watt bulbs burning for an hour. One kilowatt-hour equals 3.6 million joules (see Watt).
Large car (Grosse voiture):A car with a gross vehicle weight of 1182 kg (2601 lb.) or more. The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.
Large truck (as referred to in the National Private Vehicle Use Survey) (Gros camion):A truck with a gross vehicle weight of more than, or equal to, 14,970 kilograms (30,001 lb.).
Light truck (Camion léger):A truck of up to 3855 kg (8500 lb.) of gross vehicle weight. The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight. This class of vehicles includes pickup trucks, minivans and sport utility vehicles.
Light truck and van category (Catégorie camion léger et
fourgonnette):A category of light motorized vehicles - including minivans, pickup trucks, vans and other types of light trucks, such as utility vehicles - designed primarily to carry light goods, with limited capacity to carry passengers.
Light-duty vehicle (Véhicule léger):A car, motorcycle and light truck, including a van.
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) and Gas Plant Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) (Gaz de pétrole liquéfié [GPL] et liquides de gaz naturel [LGN] des usines de gaz):Propane and butane are liquefied gases extracted from natural gas (i.e. gas plant NGL) or from refined petroleum products (i.e. LPG) at the processing plant.
Louvred unit (Panneau persienné):A window-mounted air-conditioning unit that has accordion-style or louvred side panels installed between the unit and the window frame to prevent drafts.
Low-E coating (Couche à faible émissivité):Low-E (low-emissivity) coatings are highly reflective, transparent coatings applied to windowpanes to slow heat loss.
Medium truck (Camion moyen):A truck with a gross vehicle weight ranging from 3856 to 14,969 kg (8501 to 33,000 lb.). The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.
Megajoule (Mégajoule):One megajoule equals 1 x 106 joules (see Petajoule).
Megawatt-hour (mWh) (Mégawattheure [mWh]):One megawatt-hour equals 1 x 106 watt hours (see Kilowatt-hour).
Methane (CH4) (Méthane):A very potent greenhouse gas, as the release of one tonne of methane has the same GHG impact as 21 tonnes of carbon dioxide. It has an energy content of 20.3 MJ/m³ (see Greenhouse Gas).
Microwave oven (Four à micro-ondes):An appliance that emits electromagnetic waves capable of agitating water molecules contained in food. The repeated friction of these molecules raises the temperature, enabling the food to cook rapidly.
Minivan (Mini-fourgonnette):A type of small van introduced in 1984 to carry up to seven occupants.
Mobile home (Maison mobile):A moveable dwelling designed and constructed to be transported by road on its own chassis to a site and placed on a temporary foundation (such as blocks, posts or a prepared pad). If required, it can be moved to a new location.
Model year (Année automobile):An annual period in which a national automotive industry organizes its operations and within which new models are announced. For example, if the "model year" is 2004, it begins September 1, 2003, and ends August 31, 2004.
Moisture detector (Détecteur d'humidité):A moisture detector is a sensor in a clothes dryer used to check the amount of moisture in the clothes and to terminate the dryer cycle automatically when the clothes are dry.
Multifactor productivity (Productivité multifactorielle):The ratio of output per unit of combined inputs (capital services and labour services).
Natural gas (Gaz naturel):A gaseous mixture of saturated hydrocarbons that is found in underground deposits, either alone or with petroleum. It is delivered directly to buildings by pipelines.
Non-louvred unit (Panneau non persienné):Wall-mounted air-conditioning unit that does not have accordion-style or louvred side panels around it.
North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) (Système de classification des industries de l'Amérique du Nord [SCIAN]):A classification system that categorizes establishments into groups with similar economic activities. The structure of NAICS, adopted by Statistics Canada in 1997 to replace the 1980 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), was developed by the statistical agencies of Canada, Mexico and the United States.
Oil (Mazout):A flammable liquid derived from petroleum, which is dark brown or black and more or less viscous. It is used as fuel to produce heat and energy.
Outdoor lights with motion detector (Lumière extérieure munie de détecteur de mouvements):Outdoor lighting fixtures that turn on when the sensor detects movement and turn off automatically after a set period of time.
Passenger car category (Catégorie automobile):A category of light motorized vehicles, including convertibles, sedans, station wagons and hatchbacks, that are designed primarily to carry passengers.
Passenger-kilometre (Pkm) (Voyageur-kilomètre):An activity measure in the passenger transportation sub-sector describing the transportation of one passenger over a distance of one kilometre.
Penetration rate (Taux de pénétration):The rate at which a technology infiltrates the stock of buildings (e.g. number of refrigerators per household at a specified time).
Per capita (Par habitant):For each person.
Petajoule (Petajoule):One petajoule equals 1 x 1015 joules. A joule is the international unit of measure of energy – the energy produced by the power of one watt flowing for a second. There are 3.6 million joules in one kilowatt-hour (see Kilowatt-hour).
Petroleum (Pétrole):A naturally occurring mixture consisting of predominantly hydrocarbons in the gaseous, liquid or solid phase.
Pickup truck (Camionnette):A light motorized vehicle with an enclosed cab that usually accommodates two to three occupants and, in the rear, has an open bed with low sides designed to carry cargo.
Pillars (Piliers):Wood, concrete or metal columns that are driven into the ground and used to support a building and prevent it from sinking into the ground.
Pilot light (Veilleuse [foyer à gaz]):A small flame within a gas- or oil-burning unit that is allowed to burn continually to enable automatic ignition of the unit.
Portable electric heater (Radiateur électrique portatif):A heating unit that can be easily transported. The source of heat is an electrically heated resistance.
Portable stereo (Chaîne stéréo portative):A stereo that is capable of being easily carried or moved about (using built-in handles or carrying straps). A portable stereo is also a one-component stereo system. Walkmans and MP3 players are not considered to be portable stereos.
Primary energy use (Consommation d'énergie primaire):Represents the total requirement for all uses of energy, including energy used by the final consumer (see Secondary energy use), non-energy uses, intermediate uses of energy, energy in transforming one energy form to another (e.g. coal to electricity), and energy used by suppliers in providing energy to the market (e.g. pipeline fuel).
Private vehicle (Véhicule personnel):A light vehicle such as a passenger car, minivan, pickup truck, van and other types of light trucks or utility vehicles used for personal use, regardless of ownership status.
Production of electricity (Production d'électricité):The amount of electric energy expressed in kilowatt-hours produced in a year. The determination of electric energy production takes into account various factors, such as the type of service for which generating units were designed (e.g. peaking or base load), the availability of fuels, the cost of fuels, stream flows and reservoir water levels and environmental constraints.
Programmable thermostat (Thermostat programmable):Device that automatically controls the amount of heat or cold distributed within a room by reacting to room temperature. The programmable thermostat makes it possible to set the desired temperature of a room according to the time of the day.
Propane (Propane):A saturated, aliphatic, linear-chain hydrocarbon (C3H8) found in natural gas and petroleum and widely used as a fuel.
Pulping liquor (Liqueur résiduaire):A substance primarily made up of lignin, other wood constituents and chemicals that are by-products of the manufacture of chemical pulp. It can produce steam for industrial processes when burned in a boiler and/or produce electricity through thermal generation.
Refrigerator (Réfrigérateur):A movable chest in which the temperature can be reduced and controlled for the preservation of refrigerated foods. Most refrigerators are equipped with a second compartment for freezing foods.
Retrofit (Amélioration éconergétique):The improvement in the energy efficiency of existing energy-using equipment or the thermal characteristics of an existing building.
Roof space (Entretoit):The space between the roof and the highest floor of a house.
Room air conditioner (Climatisateur individuel):Powered by electricity, this device removes heat from an indoor living space to maintain comfortable conditions during hot, humid weather and conveys it to the outdoors. Unlike a central air conditioner, no ductwork is required. All components are built into a single package that is mounted in a window opening or through the wall. It is a smaller version of a central unit and is intended to cool a small area, such as a room.
Rural area (Région rurale):Any area located outside an urban area is considered to be part of a rural area.
Secondary energy use (Consommation d'énergie secondaire):Energy used by final consumers for residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial and transportation purposes.
Sector (Secteur):The broadest category for which energy consumption and intensity are considered within the Canadian economy (e.g. residential, commercial/institutional, industrial, transportation, agriculture and electricity generation).
Service level (Niveau de service):Term used to characterize the increased penetration of auxiliary equipment in commercial/institutional buildings.
Single attached (dwelling) (Maison individuelle attenante):Each half of a semi-detached (double) house and each section of a row or terrace are defined as single attached dwellings. A single dwelling attached to a non-residential structure also belongs to this category.
Single detached (dwelling) (Maison unifamiliale):This type of dwelling is commonly called a single house (i.e. a house containing one dwelling unit and completely separated on all sides from any other building or structure).
Single-paned window (Fenêtre à vitrage simple):A window containing a single pane of glass.
Slab on grade (concrete) (Dalle de béton):A rigid, horizontal (or almost horizontal) concrete structure with a large horizontal surface in relation to its thickness, used as the foundation of a house.
Small car (Petite voiture):A car weighing up to 1181 kg (2600 lb.) of gross vehicle weight. The gross vehicle weight is the weight of the empty vehicle plus the maximum anticipated load weight.
Space cooling (Climatisation des locaux d'habitation):Conditioning of room air for human comfort by a refrigeration unit (e.g. air conditioner or heat pump) or by the circulation of chilled water through a central- or district-cooling system.
Space heating (Chauffage des locaux):The use of mechanical equipment to heat all or part of a building. Includes the principal space heating unit and any supplementary equipment.
Sport utility vehicle (Véhicule utilitaire sport):A four-wheel drive vehicle that is not a pickup truck (e.g. Ford Explorer).
Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) (Classification type des industries [CTI]):A classification system that categorizes establishments into groups with similar economic activities.
Storey (Étage):The space contained between two consecutive floors or between one floor and the roof.
Storm window (Contre-fenêtre):A full-width window, either fixed or movable, installed on the exterior of a window for protection against inclement weather. It is usually equipped with a single pane to reduce air leakage.
Stove or kitchen stove (Cuisinière ordinaire):A single-unit appliance used to cook food, combining a cooking surface and an oven. The stove may be heated by wood, coal, oil, gas or electricity, or by different combinations thereof (such as a stove using both natural gas and electricity).
Structure (Structure):Structure refers to change in the makeup of each sector. For example, in the industrial sector, a relative increase in output from one industry over another is considered a structural change; in the electricity generation sector, a relative increase in one fuel over another is considered a structural change.
Supplementary heating (Chauffage d'appoint):A heating system that can be used in addition to a main heating system, as desired, and is flexible enough to respond to rapid variations in heating needs.
Swimming pool (Piscine):Any basin or tank that holds water and that is sufficiently large for swimming.
Terajoule (TJ) (Térajoule [TJ]):One terajoule equals 1 x 1012 joules (See Petajoule).
Tonne-kilometre (Tkm)(Tonne-kilomètre):An activity measure in the freight transportation sub-sector describing the transportation of one tonne over a distance of one kilometre.
Triple-paned window (Fenêtre à vitrage triple):A window containing three panes of glass separated by air spaces.
Urban area (Région urbaine):An area having a population of at least 1000 inhabitants and a population density of at least 400 inhabitants per square kilometre, as determined in the previous census.
Van (Fourgonnette):A vehicle with a capacity to carry from five to 15 occupants or a limited amount of cargo. Access is normally through side or rear doors.
Ventilation (Ventilation):The circulation of air through a building to deliver fresh air to occupants.
Vintage (Période de construction):The year of origin or age of a unit of capital stock (e.g. a building or a car).
Waste fuel (Combustible résiduaire):A id applied to any number of energy sources other than conventional fuels used in the cement industry. It includes materials such as tires, municipal waste and landfill off-gases.
Water devices (Dispositifs pour l'eau):Water devices include hot water tanks, water-saving shower heads, and tap attachments.
Water heater (Chauffe-eau):An automatically controlled vessel designed for heating water and storing heated water.
Water heating (Chauffage de l'eau):The use of energy to heat water for hot running water, as well as the use of energy to heat water on stoves and in auxiliary water heating equipment for bathing, cleaning and other non-cooking applications.
Watt (W) Watt[W]):A measure of power. For example, a 40-watt light bulb uses 40 watts of electricity (see Kilowatt-hour).
Wood stove (Poêle à bois):An enclosed heating unit for burning wood.
Wood waste (Déchets ligneux):Fuel consisting of bark, shavings, sawdust, low-grade lumber and lumber rejects from the operation of pulp mills, sawmills and plywood mills.
List of Abbreviations
$2002 (2002 $): Constant 2002 dollars
bbl. (baril): Barrel
CAFC (CMCE): Company Average Fuel Consumption
CANSIM (CANSIM): Canadian Socio-Economic Information Management System
CEUM (Modèle d'utilisation finale pour le secteur commercial): Commercial/Institutional End-Use Model
CIEEDAC (Centre): Canadian Industrial Energy End-Use Data and Analysis Centre
EC (EC): Environment Canada
EER (EER): Energy Efficiency Ratio
GDP (PIB): Gross Domestic Product
GHG (GES): Greenhouse Gas
GJ (GJ): Gigajoule = 1 x 109 joules
GO (PB): Gross Output
GWh (GWh): Gigawatt-hour = 1 x 109 Wh
km (km): Kilometre
kW (kW): Kilowatt
kWh (kWh): Kilowatt-hour = 1 x 103 Wh
L (L): Litre
LPG (GPL): Liquefied Petroleum Gases
m² (m²): Square metre
m³ (m³): Cubic metre
MJ (MJ): Megajoule = 1 x 106 joules
Mt of CO2e (Mt éq CO2): Megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent = 1 x 106 tonnes
NAICS (SCIAN): North American Industry Classification System
n.e.c. (n.c.a.): Not elsewhere classified
NEUD (BNCÉ): National Energy Use Database
NGL (LGN): Natural Gas Liquids
NRCan (RNCan): Natural Resources Canada
OEE (OEE): Office of Energy Efficiency
PJ (PJ): Petajoule = 1 x 1015 joules
Pkm (Vkm): Passenger-kilometre
RESD (Bulletin): Report on Energy Supply-Demand in Canada
REUM (Modèle d'utilisation finale pour le secteur résidentiel): Residential End-Use Model
SEER (SEER): Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio
SIC (CTI): Standard Industrial Classification
TEUM (Modèle d'utilisation finale pour le secteur des transports): Transportation End-Use Model
TJ (TJ): Terajoule = 1 x 1012 joules
Tkm (Tkm): Tonne-kilometre
UEC (CUE): Unit Energy Consumption
W (W): Watt
Wh (Wh): Watt-hour